Presentation on theme: "The next generation Chapters 9, 10, 17 in the course textbook, especially pages 175-181, 201-204, 343-344."— Presentation transcript:
The next generation Chapters 9, 10, 17 in the course textbook, especially pages 175-181, 201-204, 343-344
Genetic Linkage and Recombination Mendel was lucky - the genes he chose all segregated independently This is not true of all genes - many genes are linked In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes and about 35000 pairs of genes - each chromosome has a few hundred to a few thousand genes Genes close together on the same chromosome are linked and do not segregate independently
Terms & Definitions Genes can have several different forms due to mutations in the DNA. These forms are called alleles. Property of having different forms is called polymorphism Organism with 2 copies of the same allele of a gene in diploid cells is homozygous for the gene Organism with different alleles of a gene in diploid cells is heterozygous for the gene Males (mammals and some other organisms) are hemizygous for genes on X and Y chromosomes
Modes of inheritance Dominant alleles affect the phenotype when present in 1 copy (heterozygous), e.g. Huntingtons disease Recessive alleles affect the phenotype only when present in 2 copies (homozygous), e.g. cystic fibrosis Can tell whether dominant or recessive by studying Mode of Inheritance in families (examples in my first lecture)
Oogenesis & spermatogenesis (animals) Oogenesis is the process of egg formation Spermatogenesis is the process of sperm formation Both go through several stages, with (in mammals) different timing in males than females Sperms go through more cell divisions than eggs do - more chance of mutation
Fertilisation 2 haploid cells (egg, sperm) form 1 diploid cell (the zygote) which develops into the embryo Whether sperm contained an X or Y chromosome determines if embryo is female or male Embryo contains an assortment of genes from each original parent - more genetic diversity Mitochondria (and their DNA) come only from mother via the egg - maternal inheritance
Meiosis Process of cell division in germ cells, to produce eggs or sperm (gametes) 1 diploid cell gives rise to 2 haploid cells Goes through several defined stages Chromosomes are passed on as re-arranged copies due to recombination - creates genetic diversity
Meiosis and Recombination Chromosomes pair upDNA replication Chiasmata form Recombination 1st cell division 2nd cell divisionGametes Result: meiosis generates new combinations of alleles
The overall process Mum Dad Meiosis Recombination Egg Sperm Fertilisation Development to adult
Recombination and linkage The closer together 2 genes are on the same chromosome, the less likely there is to be a recombination between them - such genes are linked and do not segregate independently Genes that are far apart are likely to have a recombination between them and will segregate independently - such genes are unlinked Genes on separate chromosomes are unlinked
Unlinked genes A a B b Gametes: 25% AB 25% AaBb 25% Ab 25% Aabb 25% aB 25% aaBb 25% ab 25% aabb a a b b Gametes: 100% ab Parents
Linked genes A a B b Gametes: 50% AB 50% AaBb 0% Ab 0% aB 50% ab 50% aabb Gametes: 100% ab a b Parents
Linkage to an autosomal dominant gene AAAa aa AaaaAa aa A and a are alleles of a marker gene Yellow shading indicates affected with a genetic disease (NOT caused by gene A/a) Allele a of the marker gene always segregates with the disease, so the 2 genes must be linked
An application of linkage Can do prenatal diagnosis for genetic disease using a linked gene Useful when you dont know exactly what gene is causing the disease bb BB Bbbb Bb Bb or bb ?
How much genetic variation? About 35,000 genes in humans If each gene has only 2 alleles (probably an underestimate), then: –Number of possible genotypes = 3 35,000 = 10 16,700 Far more than all the atoms in the Universe! Essentially, we are all genetically unique (except identical twins)
Significance of genetic variation Some alleles directly cause specific traits, such as (in humans) rare genetic diseases e.g. Cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell anaemia; (in bacteria) ability to grow on certain sugars Many alleles contribute to many traits of an organism such as size, shape, intelligence, behaviour, and risk of getting diseases e.g. (in humans) cancer, heart disease, asthma Genetic variation is what evolution acts on. Without it there would be no different species.
Multiple genes and quantitative traits Many traits like height, IQ show a bell-shaped (normal) distribution in population These are influenced by several genes, so the overall effect depends on the random selection of alleles in an individual e.g. for height genes, you are more likely to have a mixture of tall and short alleles than all tall or all short height number
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