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Presentation on theme: "A PPROACHES TO E UROPEAN S ECURITY PI5501 Lecture 2."— Presentation transcript:


2 A PPROACHES TO E UROPEAN S ECURITY Realism Neo-realism Liberalism/Utopianism Neo-liberalism Social Constructivism Post Structuralism


4 R EALISM AND S TRATEGIC T HEORY Realism (classical) Pessimism about human nature and international system Anarchy Self-help Major concern: survival and security Accumulation of power Focus is on the state/nation – Why? (Hobbes) Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

5 R EALISM AND S TRATEGIC T HEORY Use in the Cold War Role and application of military power to achieve political objectives Geopolitics and territory Conventional and strategic military power (Nuclear) deterrence Alliances Bi-polar system and peace

6 R EALISM AND S TRATEGIC T HEORY Clausewitz On War (1832) War: a controlled, rational, instrumental, political and legitimate act. Norman Angell The Great Illusion (1914) Inverse relationship between the cost of war and its frequency War: Causes of (particular) wars (19th C), or Causes of War (phenomenon) (K. Waltz)

7 R EALISM AND S TRATEGIC T HEORY Basic Tenants of Neo-Realism Anarchic system States are primary actors States are unitary actors States are power seeking States are rational actors

8 R EALISM AND S TRATEGIC T HEORY Kenneth Waltz Man, the State and War (1959) 3 Images (or causes) 1. Human Behaviour 2. Internal Structures of the State 3. International Anarchy War: functional to systems preservation Balance of power mechanism Conflict-resolution mechanism

9 R EALISM AND S TRATEGIC T HEORY Balance of Power and Deterrence What is deterrence? Nuclear Deterrence in the Cold War MAD-based stability based on rationality (?) Nuclear Proliferation in the Post-Cold War Greater deterrence? Greater instability and danger?

10 R EALISM AND S TRATEGIC T HEORY Dominance of (Neo)realism in IR during Cold War: International Sec=Strategic Studies Security Dilemma, Balance of Power, Alliances, War, Deterrence, Arms Control Agreements Weaknesses and contradictions of traditional approach Anarchy? (collaboration and cooperation) State as unitary actor? (pluralism) State as primary actor? (non-state actors) State as power seeking? (small states) State as rational? (information)

11 L IBERALISM AND INSTITUTIONS Post-1945 International Relations: Rise of international institutions as collective actors Collective action problem Rise of European integration Rise of Pluralism in the US Pluralism focused on new actors (transnational corporations, non- governmental organizations) and new patterns of interaction (interdependence, integration).

12 A NEW LIBERALISM Neoliberalisms challenge to contemporary realism. They explain the durability of institutions despite significant changes in context. Institutions exert a causal force on international relations, shaping state preferences and locking them in to cooperative arrangements. Feedback loop Democratic peace liberalism and neoliberalism are the dominant strands in liberal thinking today.

13 N EO - LIBERALISM Neo-liberal institutionalism is rooted in the functional integration theoretical work of the 1950s and 60s and the complex interdependence and transnational studies literature of the 1970s and 80s. IR 2001 International Organisations in Europe Neo-liberal institutionalists see institutions as the mediator and the means to achieve co- operation in the international system.

14 N EO - LIBERALISM Neo-liberal institutionalists recognize that co- operation may be harder to achieve in areas where leaders perceive they have no mutual interests. Neo-liberals believe that states co-operate to achieve absolute gains and the greatest obstacle to co-operation is cheating or non-compliance by other states. This is were institutions come in.

15 T HE NEO - NEO DEBATE The neo-neo debate is not a debate between two polar opposite worldviews. They share an epistemology (shared knowledge), focus on similar questions and they agree on a number of assumptions about international politics. This is an intra-paradigm debate.

16 T HE NEO - NEO DEBATE Neo-liberal institutionalists and neo-realists study different worlds of international politics. Neo-realists focus on security and military issues - the high politics issue area. Neo-liberal institutionalists focus on political economy, environmental issues, and lately, human rights issues. These issues have been called the low politics issue agenda.

17 T HE NEO - NEO DEBATE Neo-realists explain that all states must be concerned with the absolute and relative gains that result from international agreements and co- operative efforts. Neo-liberal institutionalists are less concerned about relative gains and consider that all will benefit from absolute gains. Neo-realists are more cautious about co- operation and remind us the world is still a competitive place where self-interest rules.

18 T HE NEO - NEO DEBATE Neo-liberal institutionalists believe that states and other actors can be persuaded to co-operate if they are convinced that all states will comply with rules and co- operation will result in absolute gains. This debate does not discuss many important issues that challenge some of the core assumptions of each theory. For example, neo-realism cannot explain foreign policy behavior that challenges the norm of national interest over human interests. Neither theory addresses the impact of learning on the foreign policy behavior of states.

19 N EO - LIBERALISM : A RECAP Five key points to remember about Neoliberalism States live with institutionalised cooperation States are one of many actors States are complex actors States are still rational actors States seek co-operation over conflict

20 S OCIAL C ONSTRUCTIVISM Cold War 1960s & 1970s Rise of security debate Important changes in the West 1980s & 1990s Security debate Strategic Studies Co-operative Security and Collective Security Human Security

21 S OCIAL C ONSTRUCTIVISM Key questions: Security for whom? Security for which values? Security from what threats? Security provided by whom? Security by what means?

22 S OCIAL C ONSTRUCTIVISM Key elements: Securitisation as a speech-act (language theory) Force of word security Security and threats: neither subjective nor objective but rather intersubjective Widens the security agenda Opposite to the rationalist, objectivist theories Focus on ideas, identities, perceptions, beliefs Securitisation: moderate constructivist approach Regional Security complexes See next page


24 S OCIAL C ONSTRUCTIVISM In post-Cold War Europe: Salience of regional security Region as unit of analysis Regional Security Degree of autonomy from systemic level Degree of interdependence Regionally based clusters of security

25 S OCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM AND S ECURITY SectorMilitaryPoliticalEconomicSocietalEnviron- mental Object States sovereignty/ territorial integrity Governments recognition/ legitimacy States economy? Nations identity/ culture Local and planetary biosphere ThreatMilitary attack Coup detat/ secessionism Closing access to external resources?/ Embargoes?/ protectionism? /monopoly? Migration/ assimilation /prohibition to practice ones religion, etc. Pollution/ depletion of nat. resources

26 S OCIAL C ONSTRUCTIVISM Summary of Social Constructivism Context of its development Questions the definition of security Adds new dimension to theoretical debate Allows for widening of agenda Highlights importance of regions

27 T HEORIES AND C ONCEPTS Anarchy Security Dilemma Deterrence The Role of the State Alliances Conflict Security How do different theories engage with these concepts?

28 S EMINAR T OPIC Whose interests and whose security in European security?

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