Presentation on theme: "The Art of Argumentation. Getting Started… In your notes (yes, we are taking some notes today) tell me the difference between argument and persuasion."— Presentation transcript:
Getting Started… In your notes (yes, we are taking some notes today) tell me the difference between argument and persuasion. Your response can be brief – two or three sentences or so and you need to be prepared to share.
What an argument is not… A quarrel or an angry exchange “Spin” (the positive or biased slant that politicians routinely use) Propaganda (information or misinformation spread to support a viewpoint) Contradiction or denial of the opposition
An academic argument is defined as… Taking a debatable position, presenting evidence and using sound logic to convince the audience to accept (or at least consider) your position. Statements of fact or statements of personal preference or taste are not typically suited for an academic argument.
Ethos Ethical Appeal Ethical appeal is used to establish the writer as fair, open-minded, honest, and knowledgeable about the subject matter. The writer creates a sense of him or herself as trustworthy and credible.
Pathos Emotional Appeal Not surprisingly, emotional appeals target the emotions of the reader to create some kind of connection with the writer. Since humans are in many ways emotional creatures, pathos can be a very powerful strategy in argument. A lot of visual appeal is emotional in nature (think of advertisements, with their powerful imagery, colors, fonts, and symbols).
Logos Logical Appeal Logical appeal is the strategic use of logic, claims, and evidence to convince an audience of a certain point.
Credibility vs. Effectiveness Credible (credibility) means an argument is logically sound and well-supported with strong evidence and reasoning. Effective (effectiveness) means an argument works in convincing or persuading its audience. Many arguments that are effective are also credible... but there are also many that aren't.
The Argument… in a nutshell A solid argument will typically include three very important things: 1. Claims 2. Evidence 3. Warrants You will want to highlight the definition of each in your notes – these are final exam questions.
Claims: In argumentative writing the writer presents a claim to the audience Claim: a proposition that conveys the writer’s interpretations or beliefs about something. Claims are not facts but rather conclusions drawn from facts. The truth or validity of a claim can be argued by others and there is always an opposing point of view
Claims: Make sure that when you are developing a claim for a paper, that the following conditions are met: 1. The claim actually conveys your interpretation and is not a statement of fact. 2. The claim(s) can be supported by specific evidence
Claim Statements: A claim statement is typically just your position on the issue posed and a very basic “why” you think that. Example: MRHS seniors are better than any other cohort of seniors because they constantly push to be the best in academics, athletics and the arts.
Evidence and Warrants: Evidence: support or facts that are indisputable because they are grounded in solid, academic, reliable research Evidence is used to support the claim Warrant: logical connection between a claim and the supporting evidence Sometimes the relationship between the claim and the evidence will be obvious and the writer won’t need to expound on the relationship between the two. Sometimes you will need to show the reader the connection
Questions to Ponder Does the use of social media isolate us from society? Has social media replaced “live” interactions with others? Is social media stunting our growth as individuals? Is social media making us more introverted? Is social media to blame for people’s loneliness? Does not using social media make you morally superior? Is it possible to become addicted social media?