Social Science Research Applied Psychology: Workforce attitudes eg safety climate surveys Incidence of depression in undergraduate students Experience of crime in the elderly Use of decision support systems in intensive care Primary teachers experience of web-teaching
Overview What is a survey? Sampling Survey designs Data collection methods Questionnaire design –Asking questions Conducting a survey
What is a Survey? A method of gathering information from a number of individuals, a sample, in order to learn something about the larger population from which the sample is drawn. (May 1993, Social Research p65)
Sampling random sample –equal chance of selection stratified random sample –strata = predetermined variables cluster sample –e.g. geographical location opportunity sample –taking advantage of opportunity snowball sample –participants recruit new sample
Survey designs Cross-sectional –one sample, one time Time series –repeated survey, different samples Longitudinal –repeated survey, same sample
Data collection methods postal questionnaire emailed/ web-based questionnaire telephone interview face to face interview (See handout for comparison)
Asking questions 1. Content - facts; beliefs & attitudes; self –report behaviours 2.Wording - terminology, leading & loaded questions 3.Structure - complexity, length, open vs closed questions, rating scales (coding and scoring) 4. Sequence - funnelling, transitional statements, filters
Question Format a) Open Questions How do you feel about investors from foreign countries purchasing shares in British companies? What goes through your mind whenever you see someone driving down the street in a Mercedes- Benz car?
Question format b) Closed Questions i) Dichotomous Do you buy Persil washing powder? Yes No
Question format c) Multiple Choice How far do you commute from your home to where you work? 0-5 miles round trip. 6-10 miles round trip 11-20 miles round trip Over 20 miles round trip.
Question Format d) Multiple response Of the following activities, please indicate the one(s) in which you have participated in the past month. Have attended the cinema. Have gone to the pub. Have invited friends over for an evening of cards. Have attended a play or concert. Have played tennis. Have watched the grass growing in the front lawn.
Rating Scales Potential Source of Bias, Unbalanced Range How would you rate the reliability of your Snowchucker snowblower? Superior Very good Good Poor How would your rate the reliability of your Snowchucker snowblower? Extremely poor Very poor Poor Good
Ewell Careys Take-Out Chicken is: x Priced far too high Very reasonably priced x The worst-tasting chicken in townThe best-tasting chicken in town Compared to Colonel Sanders, Ewell Careys Take-Out Chicken: 01 Has an inferior taste 2345678910111213 Tastes about the sameHas a superior taste x
Overall, how do you like your new Snowchucker? Very dissatisfiedSomewhat dissatisfiedSomewhat satisfiedVery satisfied 1234 What do you think of the food at Chung Hos Burrito? -3-20+1+2+3 Terrible Terrific
Please rank the following restaurants according to the quality of their food. Place a 1 beside the restaurant you believe has the highest quality food, a 2 next to the second best establishment, then continue until youve placed a 5 next to the one with the lowest-quality food: __________ Ewell Careys Take-Out Chicken __________ Colonel Sanders Kentucky Fried Chicken __________ Wofgang Schmidts Genuine Italian Pizza __________ Harolds Hoagie Heaven __________ Chung Hos Burrito Palace
Conducting a Survey 1. Mode of data collection - personal interview, mail, email, phone 2. Specific areas to be covered 3. Existing questions/scales 4. Writing questions - language, open v closed, rating scales 5. Draft - sequence, transition, –balance open v closed, positive v. negative 6. Circulate draft - revise from comments 7. Pretest with small sample (eg 10) 8. Analyse pretest - revise 9. Administer 10. Code & analyse data 11. Prepare Survey Report - summarising results, drawing conclusions
References Further details and the reference list are provided on the lecture handout.