2 Geography of diseaseSt. Ivo SchoolTuberculosis chosen due to school immunisation programme!A lot of preliminary work & research on1. Data for countries – multivariate data2. Tuberculosis as a diseasePreparing materials for 4 intro lessons as well as the World Health Summit (Dec 06)
3 Introduction to Tuberculosis St. Ivo SchoolLesson 1:Introduction to Tuberculosis
4 Tuberculosis – The facts! TB is curable but kills 5000 people every day or 2 million per year.2 billion people (1/3 of world’s population) are infected with the microbes that cause TB1 in 10 people infected with TB microbes will become sick with active TB in their lifetimeTB is contagious & spreads through the air: if not treated each person with active TB infects people every year (approx)Almost 9 million new cases occurred in 2004
5 What is TB?Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria (mycobacterium tuberculosis)The TB bacteria usually attack the lungs but it can also attack the kidneys, spine & brain. It is fatal if untreated.
6 How is TB spread?TB germs are spread from person to person through the air.The bacteria are put into the air when a person with active TB coughs or sneezes.When a person breathes in TB bacteria they settle in the lungs & begin to grow, from there they can move through the blood to other parts of the bodyNot everyone infected with TB gets sick. People can have latent TB infection they don’t feel ill, have any symptoms & can’t spread TB to others. These people can go on and get the TB disease.
7 How would you know if you had TB? Symptoms:Bad cough lasting 3 weeks or moreChest painCoughing up blood or sputumWeakness / tirednessWeight lossSweating at nightNo appetiteChillsFeverWith these symptoms people can spread TB to others.
8 Estimated number of TB cases 2004 World RegionNumber (thousands)Africa2573North / South America363E. Mediterranean645Europe445South East Asia2967Western Pacific1925
9 Why the global increase of TB? Population growthUrbanisationIncreasing povertyRates of HIV infection – this weakens the immune system. If HIV + 100x more likely to develop TB.Drug resistant TB (costs for LEDCs?)Young adults & women aged , most at riskPoorly managed TB programmes – especially in LEDCs (Africa & SE Asia)
10 Interpreting Graphs and Data St. Ivo SchoolLesson 2:Interpreting Graphs and Data
12 Annotating the graph BCG vaccination introduced (given to school leaving age)in 1953Annotating the graphVaccination also given to infants from 1960TB incidence decreased50,000 cases a year in 1950On average 10500people die from TBeach yearAn average of 350people die from TBeach yearTB levels started to increaseLowest recorded level ofTB – 5745 in 1987
13 Since 1987 (lowest number of cases: 5745) cases have risen by 27% to 7300 a year Each year 350 people die from TB
14 The number of new cases… In , we saw the largest increase in any one year since 1999!
17 The largest increase was seen amongst patients who were not born in the UK. However, only 22% of these patients in 2005 arrived in the UK during the past two years. This suggests that the increase is not a result of a large number of individuals arriving recently with TB but rather a combination of TB disease developing in individuals who may have been infected for some time and new infections acquired in the UK, or as a result of travel to other countries where TB is common.
18 Fig 8 & 9:Tuberculosisrates per age group,England, Wales andNorthern Ireland,Non-UK bornUK born
19 The UK’s BCG vaccination programme has changed?
20 Vaccinations are no longer given to all school aged children; instead those people considered most at risk of catching TB are vaccinated.
21 Those who… are in close contact with an infected person have visited, lived or worked for a long time in countries with a high rate of TBare the children of parents whose country of origin has a high rate of TBhave a weakened immune system due to disease or treatment (HIV)are homeless or living in poor or overcrowded conditions or undernourishedmay have been exposed to TB in their youth when the disease was more common in this countryyoung children and very elderly people
23 Opening Address St. Ivo School Welcome today to all honourable delegates from the UK, USA, China, Bangladesh, Kenya and Brazil for the 2006 WHO summit. The focus of this meeting is Tuberculosis – a disease that causes 2 million deaths per year (worldwide), one every 15 seconds. 98% of these deaths occur in developing (poorer) areas of the world.I am hoping that today will help us to understand some of the issues facing our countries with regards to TB. It should be our collective aim to try and eradicate TB globally.GLOBAL PLAN FILMLet us work together whatever our global position or level of wealth to sort out this disease. Please make a firm commitment today with how your country will join the Global plan to STOP TB 2006 – This disease can not be allowed to continue killing people, in the last century 100 million people have died, please support a TB free world.
36 Student evaluation of multivariate packages St. Ivo SchoolEasy to use & instant (sliding button)Useful once understood how to work itLots of information on the graphsThe data was in an understandable formThe graphs helped ‘put the figures into perspective’Fathom difficult to understandA small number of girls found it hard to use and understand
37 Evaluation of multivariate packages St. Ivo SchoolEvery student was engaged throughout the lesson and computer project!99% of students were on task and managed to interpret some graphs and related the data back to the contextPlotters more approachable to students
38 Evaluation of TB project St. Ivo SchoolThis involved one group of 30 year 9 students.All students had 4 preparation lessons culminating in the mock world health summit (7/12/07)Students completed an evaluation sheet at the end of the summit about all the work they had done.
39 Student opinionsSt. Ivo SchoolLots enjoyed the lesson on TB in the UK, using graphs & matching statementsInterested to know about TBEnjoyed using ICT and independent learningLiked sorting out the costumes & finding out about their countrySome students commented that they enjoyed the WHS day better than the prep lessons
40 What did students learn about TB? St. Ivo SchoolHow many people it killsHow easily it’s spreadThe fact it’s curable1 person can infect peopleAffects 2 million per yearNo longer vaccinated in lots of British schools & whyMany countries can’t afford immunisations
41 Our evaluation St. Ivo School A lot of work The projects remit was very broadIt was hard to integrate geography and maths while meeting all the aims of the projectWe feel that we met the aims of the project successfullyStudents learnt facts/info/skillsWe have learnt from the experienceUnclear as to how the material can be transferred to other schools in order to minimise work and to keep data up-to-date
42 Overall…St. Ivo SchoolEnjoyable project for both students and staff