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Presentation on theme: "CONTEMPORARY EUROPEAN SECURITY FORCES PI5501 European Security – Lecture 5."— Presentation transcript:


2 Evolving War War then, now and tomorrow Then Now 8 characteristics of modern conflict (Colin S. Gray 2005, Parameters) Tomorrow 4 reasons to be wary of predicting the future (Colin S. Gray 2005, Parameters)

3 Todays conflicts 1. The unchanging nature of war 2. Third rate enemies 3. New and not-so-new wars 4. Balance of Power? 5. The move to transform will disappoint 6. Interstate war today 7. Terrorism and the law of unintended consequences 8. Two transformations: one military, one cultural

4 Tomorrows conflicts 1. War should not be approached in ways that would divorce it from its political, social and cultural contexts. 2. Defence establishments are apt to develop impressive military solutions to problems that they prefer to solve, rather than those that a cunning or lucky foe might pose. 3. Trend spotting and analysis is not a very helpful guide to the future. 4. Surprise happens. Some are agreeable while some are not.

5 Post Cold War Environment Christopher Dandecker (1994, BJS) Risk Complexity: Shifts of threat Globalization and regionalization Shifts of power Political authority and the modern nation-state Shifts in decision-making Challenges to sovereignty Shifts of sovereignty Technology and decision-making Shifts in public opinion

6 Asymmetry and Insurgency How to fight asymmetric conflicts? (Gavin Bulloch, Parameters, 1996) The Attrition Theory Absolute repression Not historically successful The Manoeuvre Theory Operations Deep – Intelligence driven Close – fixed insurgent group Rear – planning, hearts and minds

7 Technology and Conflict What role does technology play in conflict? Intelligence Coordination Public Relations Effectiveness? Technology and asymmetric warfare

8 Case Studies How are European states handling these changes? United States Russia United Kingdom France Germany Eastern Europe

9 United States Key doctrines in strategic reform 1984 – Weinberger Doctrine Be ready for change – Powell Doctrine Be ready for everything – Clinton Doctrine Be ready for police action – Bush/Rumsfeld Doctrine Be ready for lighter, faster, meaner

10 United States Key Conflicts Somalia Bosnia Kosovo Afghanistan Iraq 2003-

11 Russian Federation Key phases in Russian military evolution Phase I: Soviet Stagnation Phase II: Yeltsin and military decay Phase III: Yeltsin and a resurging military Phase IV: Putin and the struggle for development Phase V: Putin and the connection between the military and foreign policy

12 Russian Federation Key events Withdrawal from Afghanistan (1989) Withdrawal from Eastern Europe (1994) FSU (1991- ) Chechnya I ( ) Chechnya II (1999- ) Kursk ( )

13 The European Context As opposed to the US, the Europeans have been slow to upgrade and evolve European allies (albeit not the UK) were/are peripheral in Afghanistan Most European states lack a full set of assets necessary for significant power-projection Most European states lack the ability to combine their forces to form an integrated team

14 The European Context The UK and France are exceptions Both think in terms of power projection (think Sierra Leone and the Congo/Chad) Others European states think it their role to take on local issues while the US defends common interests elsewhere European states are in a self-created asset trap: unable to project power with no assets, unwilling to acquire the assets because they are not eager to perform the mission

15 The European Context European aversion to NATO (kind of) Old Europe (minus the UK and Denmark) seek a long term solution through the European Rapid Response Force (ERRF). Problem: Petersburg tasks New Europe, on the other hand, seeks the prominence of NATO over a European solution, but lacks the ability to gain significant assets (small, poorer, transition)

16 The European Context Why is this a problem? Means that the US is only willing to use allies when it improves chances of victory. Problem: undermines alliances and European objectives Means that Europe cannot act alone, but instead is tied to US objectives and decision-making Means that joint action is asymmetric thus leading to political strains on collective operations Means that disagreements over battle plans could lead to defeat

17 United Kingdom British forces are the most transformed since the end of the Cold War British forces are the most able to work with and without the help the US Main threats (Defence White Paper 2003): International Terrorism Weapons of Mass Destruction Failed States

18 United Kingdom British focus Small to Medium size conflicts Three conflicts simultaneously OR Large scale conflict and the occasional side show Network centric rather than platform centric planning Reduction in Navy and RAF Growth in Army in terms of medium weight capabilities Independent nuclear deterrent

19 United Kingdom Force Planning, Structure and Capabilities* The Armed Forces face a broader range of tasks across a wider geographical area than originally envisaged under the SDR. In particular, proactive engagement in conflict prevention and short notice peace support and counter-terrorist operations is expected to increase. The UK will not be able to contribute militarily in every international crisis. Participation will generally be in coalitions with other countries. The UKs Armed Forces must be more prepared for asymmetric attacks by both state and non-state actors, including the use of WMD through a variety of means. The Armed Forces must be equipped and configured to fulfil the requirements of homeland defence and countering international terrorism. *From the 2004 Defence White Paper

20 Others France: Independent defence and Security Germany: Limited operations Eastern Europe: Transition Low assets Low operational capabilities

21 Conclusion What is the future of conflict? In Europe? Outside Europe? Should Europe be downsizing? What are the political impediments to a European army?

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