Presentation on theme: "How Equal are Women and Men Now? Lecture 4. last week … The linguistic or cultural turn: things to words Material: inequalities in power, wealth, opportunities."— Presentation transcript:
last week … The linguistic or cultural turn: things to words Material: inequalities in power, wealth, opportunities (education and jobs) shift Symbolic (or cultural): focus on language, discourse and representation
last week … Barrett charts a shift to focus on symbolic in explaining gender differences (late 1970s onwards) critique of universalism – not all women the same critique of rationalism and of the subject – masculine? the gendering of modernity- modern=masculine – is feminism indebted to modernist liberalism? critique of materialism – are we determined by social structure or are meanings and experiences important?
lecture outline has equality between (amongst?) women and men been achieved? evidence of significant changes? consider evidence you collected – summarise your findings
lecture outline … family, education, workplace, sexual harassment, gender pay gap/age, political representation, policy Theorising Patriarchy and Gender Transformations (Walby 1990, 1997) feminist degendering movement? (Lorber 2000)
Family Status & Criticism of Gender Inequality at Home & at Work Emily W. Kane & Laura Sanchez (1994) Kirsty
Criticism of Gender Inequality at Home & at Work Family and marriage breeds gender inequality. Women often expected to do the Second Shift (Hochschild, 1990) – which is suited to male interests. Men will accept womens involvement in the workplace so long as their role is not altered. Yet women often experience inequality in the workplace which can lead to economic dependence on husbands, especially where children are involved. As a result, women are often reluctant to criticise the situation of gender inequality in the home for fear of losing their partner and economic stability.
(Margaret) Gray & Leith (2004) Perpetuating gender stereotypes in the classroom: a teacher perspective, Educational Studies, 30(1) 3 main themes: the extent that teacher training addresses gender teacher perception of gendered behaviour in the classroom teacher perception of occupational stereotyping in the classroom
main points teachers insist that children treated equally – but this has been challenged subjects studied by boys and girls – gendered gender not central – training – teaching resources perpetuate gender stereotypes? National curriculum – ineffective in addressing gender inequality in schools? impact on future life chances and opportunities of the child?
(Alan) Gender Gap 101(2002) Report from News Hour Extra. College seats filled more frequently by females than males. Attendance vs Power? Where did the guys go? Reverse Gap behind the scenes. Maintaining the Inequality Gap? The Future?
Crompton et al (1990), Gender Relations and Employment How equal are men and women? – Areas of marked improvement (Patrick)
Areas of Marked Improvement the economic activity rate amongst women of working age in Britain has grown from an inter-war plateau of just under 40% to well over 60% by the mid-1980s a lower percentage of women leave school with no qualifications compared to men (9% of women compared to 13% of men) the number of women going into further education has also increased 1970 women accounted for 32% of undergraduates and by 1986 this figure was up to 43% Between 1971 and 1981 the proportion of women in professional and managerial jobs increased by 45%, compared to that of men 16%
(Laura Murphy) Mustafa F. Ozbilgin Is the practice of equal opportunities management keeping pace with theory? Management of sex equality in the financial services sector in Britain and Turkey Research conducted in Turkey in 1996 and Britain in 1997. –Generated 45 interviews- 25 in Britain and 20 in Turkey. –Completed 362 questionnaires- 50 in Britain and 312 in Turkey. Looked at the differences between part and full time employment and the divide between the sexes. –Between 1973 and 1994 womens economic activity increased from 63% to 71% and males activity decreased from 91% to 85%. –Humphries 1992 suggested two reasons for the changes in economic activity, these were –Technological developments –Extended opening hours
continued … This research also revealed seven different approaches four in Britain and three in Turkey Conservative Approach Liberal Approach Liberal ApproachTraditionalist Approach Radical ApproachProgressive Radical Approach Transformation Approach Overall research appeared to show that women had the same opportunities as males within their companies. –94% of Turkish respondents believe that barriers no longer existed for women in their companies –68.8% of British respondents claimed that there were no restricting factors restricting equality of opportunities for women in their companies.
(Bruce) The Equal Treatment Amendment Directive (ETAD) In the UK: –no statutory definition of sexual harassment –no attempt in the UK to introduce a domestic law specifically dealing with sexual harassment in the workplace 1998 – EU commission recognised sexual harassment as problem throughout EU Amended ETAD aimed to develop the law against sexual harassment and to provide a definition. –The implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women concerning access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions Interesting that article focused only on women subject to sexual harassment –Legislation recognised equal treatment for women AND men, and need to protect both women AND men, from sexual harassment.
(Dawn) Gunning, W (2006) Women still face unequal wage gap, www.nyunews.com/vnews/display.v/ART/2006/02/22/43fc05d705dab (Dawn) Gunning, W (2006) Women still face unequal wage gap, www.nyunews.com/vnews/display.v/ART/2006/02/22/43fc05d705dab www.nyunews.com/vnews/display.v/ART/2006/02/22/43fc05d705dab US Survey – National Association for Female Executives – gender pay gap no progress despite equal pay and employment legislation problem – enforcing such legislation ethnic minority women – even more disadvantaged but some argue that the findings are out of context – pay levels linked to experience – others challenge this explanation difficult to pin down an explanation for the pay discrepancy?
(Wendy) Ginn & Arber (1991) Gender, Class and Income Inequalities in Later Life, British Journal of Sociology, 42(3): 369-396. ageism masks structured gender inequalities occupational and private pensions – linked to the sexual division in the workplace? cost of caring? General Household Survey data (1985-86) discontinuous work record – child care etc elderly people – not a homogenous group – income non-state pension perpetuate such financial inequalities?
(Laura Cruickshank) Busby & MacLeod (2001) Maintaining a balance: the retention of women MPs in Scotland, Parliamentary Affairs Website – no address given Scottish parliament – increase access to political participation compares Holyrood with Westminster strategy to promote equality – zipping 37% all MSPs - women Scotland – 3 rd world league table whilst Westminster is 26 th implications of women being more involved in parliamentary issues?
Gender Equality and Gender Mainstreaming Mira Vakily Targets for gender equality womens rights as human rights; equal participation in political and public life; the economic independence; the empowerment of girls and boys through the education systems; remove imbalances in society; Gender Mainstreaming Gender mainstreaming is the (re)organisation, improvement, development and evaluation of policy processes, so that a gender equality perspective is incorporated in all policies at all levels and at all stages, by the actors normally involved in policy-making. Why is gender mainstreaming important (to the EC)? policy-making is more people focussed it leads to better government involves both men and women gender (in)equality becomes more visible considers the diversity among men and women
Fundamental transformations? (Walby 1990; 1997) See Theorising Patriarchy – 6 structures of patriarchy - (paid employment, household production, the state, male violence, culture, sexuality) there have been many changes - shift from private to public patriarchy? convergence between women and men? polarisation between women? - e.g. education (Walby 1997: see ch. 2)
Fundamental transformations? (Walby 1990; 1997) last fifty years public form more dominant? –age significant- generational differences? exclusion to segregation? improved by womens political participation, but male resistance? patriarchy affects women differently patriarchy affects women differently e.g. class, age, life course, ethnicity
Feminist degendering movement? (see e.g. Lorber 2000) feminists want women and men to be equal dividing people into two unequally valued categories underpins gender inequality (social constructionist perspective) dismantle binary gender divisions? universally applicable? universally applicable?
Next week … Are there gendered interests that require political representation? explore two main strands: certain identities (especially gender identities) produce a certain type of politics? what the personal is political might mean.