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GIS and Place Mary Fargher Institute of Education University of London GTE 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "GIS and Place Mary Fargher Institute of Education University of London GTE 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 GIS and Place Mary Fargher Institute of Education University of London GTE 2009

2 Presentation Overview Research Focus & Aims Research Focus & Aims Research Approaches Research Approaches The Literature The Literature Empirical Study: Exemplar Empirical Study: Exemplar Preliminary Findings Preliminary Findings Summary Summary Discussion Discussion

3 Research Focus Processes involved in teaching and learning about place …..with GIS …..with GIS Mary Fargher GTE 2009

4 Place lies at the heart of geography Mary Fargher GTE 2009

5 How does GIS influence how we 'know' place? Mary Fargher GTE 2009

6 Research Aims To explore this research question: How does GIS influence how students construct knowledge about place?How does GIS influence how students construct knowledge about place? Mary Fargher GTE 2009

7 subdivided as….. How does GIS influence how students conceptualize place? How does GIS influence how students conceptualize place? How do teachers make sense of and mediate GIS in their teaching? How do teachers make sense of and mediate GIS in their teaching? How do students make sense of and mediate GIS in their learning? How do students make sense of and mediate GIS in their learning? Mary Fargher GTE 2009

8 Research Approaches Interpretive….focusing on deconstruction of processes involved in :Geography Pedagogy Technology Interpretive….focusing on deconstruction of processes involved in :Geography Pedagogy Technology Bricolage (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000) Bricolage (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000) - observe, describe, ask, read, reflect, explain Transformative….focusing on praxis through which we make the world (Lather, 1991) Transformative….focusing on praxis through which we make the world (Lather, 1991) Mary Fargher GTE 2009

9 The Literature Theoretical approaches to place Theoretical approaches to place Theoretical origins of GIS Theoretical origins of GIS Critical GIS: A more progressive research agenda? Critical GIS: A more progressive research agenda? Geo-visualization as the fourth r? (Goodchild, 2006) Geo-visualization as the fourth r? (Goodchild, 2006) Mary Fargher GTE 2009

10 Examining theoretical approaches to place Place and space as disputed but central concepts and territories for many geographers( Hubbard et al; 2004) Place and space as disputed but central concepts and territories for many geographers( Hubbard et al; 2004) Plurality of approaches (e.g. regional geography, spatial science) Plurality of approaches (e.g. regional geography, spatial science) Specific elements of each approach Specific elements of each approach Mary Fargher GTE 2009

11 Specific elements of each approach Era Era Essence Essence Influence Influence Advocates Advocates Legacy Legacy Mary Fargher GTE 2009

12 Figure 1 THE DIVERSITY OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO PLACE AND SPACE IN GEOGRAPHY Social Justice and the City (Harvey, 1973) Spatial divisions of labour Harvey (1969, 1973) Smith (1971) Peet (1977) Massey (1984) MARXISM1960S-RADICAL GEOGRAPHY Sense of Place Placelessness Locale Place as human experience Lived world Tuan (1974) Relph (1976) Agnew (1987) Entrikin (1991) Buttimer (1976) Cresswell (2004) PHENOMENOLOGY EXISTENTIALISM SUBJECTIVE PEOPLE-CENTRED PLACES 1970s -HUMANISM Hagerstrand (1982) Golledge SPATIAL SCIENCE COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY OBJECTIVE POSITIVIST SCIENTIFIC SPACE 1970s-BEHAVIOURAL GEOGRAPHY GIS Locational Analysis Frontiers in Geographical Teaching(Chorley& Haggett, 1965) Geography:A Modern Synthesis (Haggett, 1975) Remodelling Geography (MacMillan, 1989) Gregory (1963) Chorley (1965) Haggett (1975) Berry (1967) Tobler Abler et al; 1971) Harvey (1969) MacMillan POSITIVISM EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY STRUCTURALISM OBJECTIVE SCIENTIFIC QUANTIFICATION OF SPACE MODELLING 1960s/70s -SPATIAL SCIENCE Systematic regional classification Natural Regions Principles of Human Geography (Vidal de la Blache, 1921) Mackinder (1887) Herbertson (1910) Vidal de la Blache (1921) Davis CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY EXPLORATION DESCRIPTIVE /IDIOGRAPHIC PLACE Late19 th century-Mid- 1970s REGIONALIST GEOGRAPHY Human-environment relationship Geographys Social Darwinism ? Influences of Human Environment ( Semple, 1915) Ratzel Semple(1915) DARWINISMINDUCTIVE REASONING Late 19 th /early 20 th century ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM LEGACYADVOCATESINFLUENCESESSENCEERA APPROACH Mary Fargher GTE 2009

13 Geographies of difference Relational analyses of place and space Non -representational theory Geography of event Soja (1989) Doel (1999) Crang (2000) Thrift (2003) Latham (2003) Massey (2005) POSTMODERNISMSOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED PLACES SPACES AS RELATIONS NOT STRUCTURES SPACES & PLACES AS OPEN & CONNECTED Situated knowledgesFoucault Lefebvre (1991) Soja ( 1996, 1985) Haraway(1991) POST-STRUCTURALISMSPACE AS PROCESS New Models in Geography (Peet & Thrift eds; 1989) (partial) theorizing of Regionalization Becoming of a place Harvey Giddens Pred (1987) POST-STRUCTURALISM MARXISM STRUCTURATION THEORY CRITICAL GEOGRAPHIES Locality Substantive geographies Geographical imaginations Urry (1981) Sayer (1985) Gregory (1985) MARXISMSPACE & SOCIAL RELATIONS 1980s -REALISM Social Justice and the City (Harvey, 1973) Spatial divisions of labour Harvey (1969, 1973) Smith (1971) Peet (1977) Massey (1984) MARXISM1960S-RADICAL GEOGRAPHY Mary Fargher GTE 2009

14 Theoretical origins of GIS Origins – Quantitative revolution of the 1960s & 70s Origins – Quantitative revolution of the 1960s & 70s – Geography as a bona fide science? (Unwin, 1992) Designed with spatial science in mind Designed with spatial science in mind Mary Fargher GTE 2009

15 Subsequent criticisms…. Positivist origins – Designed (only?) to locate, identify, predict, problem-solve? Positivist origins – Designed (only?) to locate, identify, predict, problem-solve? Questionable ethics behind the technology- Commercially-orientated, dubious military applications, non-participatory? Questionable ethics behind the technology- Commercially-orientated, dubious military applications, non-participatory? Ground Truth : The Social Implications of GIS (Edited by John Pickles, 1995) Ground Truth : The Social Implications of GIS (Edited by John Pickles, 1995) Limitations to thinking geographically? Limitations to thinking geographically? Mary Fargher GTE 2009

16 GIS was by implication, a means of limiting the proliferation of epistemologies in geography. (Schuurman, 2000, pg. 580) A technology that could quantify but not qualify? A technology that could quantify but not qualify? Mary Fargher IoE London 2008

17 Critical GIS: A more 'progressive' research agenda? Fuller analysis of how GIS represents people, space and environments (OSullivan, 2006) Fuller analysis of how GIS represents people, space and environments (OSullivan, 2006) Participatory GIS (PGIS)- GIS for the people? Participatory GIS (PGIS)- GIS for the people? - e.g. Worldfish (Aceh, Indonesia, post-tsunami) Mary Fargher GTE 2009

18 This is not technical knowledge but rather deep knowledge which places cultural values on land and place which is manifested in fuzzy, emotional and holistic terms (McCall and Minang, 2005) and which may not fit neatly into the spatially precise demands of a GIS. (Dunn, 2007, pg 623) Mary Fargher GTE 2009

19 Geo-visualization as the fourth r? * Virtual globes – Google Earth, Worldwind, ArcExplorer, Virtual Earth etc. Virtual globes – Google Earth, Worldwind, ArcExplorer, Virtual Earth etc. Multi-source/Holistic GIS – e.g. Koravec on hurricanes (3 years prior to Katrina) Multi-source/Holistic GIS – e.g. Koravec on hurricanes (3 years prior to Katrina) * (Goodchild, 2006) Mary Fargher GTE 2009

20 Empirical Study: Exemplar Ongoing data collection in school Ongoing data collection in school - Year 9 students & their teachers - Lesson observation & interview Studying Places with GIS Studying Places with GIS - Based around the South Asia tsunami (2004) - Using : ArcGIS 9 Google Earth Google Earth Multi-source/Holistic GIS Multi-source/Holistic GIS Mary Fargher GTE 2009

21 ArcGIS 9 Geo-visualization Geo-visualization Traditional Cartesian GIS Traditional Cartesian GIS Enquiry-based – event as: disaster, tectonic hazard, aid role-play globally interdependent Enquiry-based – event as: disaster, tectonic hazard, aid role-play globally interdependent Spatial Analysis via maps, tables, calculations Spatial Analysis via maps, tables, calculations Mary Fargher GTE 2009

22 Example Using ArcGIS to teach about the South Asia tsunami (2004) Using ArcGIS to teach about the South Asia tsunami (2004) *Following images from Dascombe, ESRI Australia (2005) Mary Fargher GTE 2009

23 Mary Fargher IoE London 2008

24 Brett Dascombe ESRI Australia 2005

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26 Google Earth Geo-visualization Geo-visualization Fly-to-technology Fly-to-technology Enquiry based – event as disaster, tectonic hazard, aid role-play, globally interdependent Enquiry based – event as disaster, tectonic hazard, aid role-play, globally interdependent Mary Fargher GTE 2009

27 Multi-source/Holistic GIS Geo-visualization (ArcGIS/GE combined) Geo-visualization (ArcGIS/GE combined) Enquiry based – event as disaster, tectonic hazard, aid role- play, globally interdependent Enquiry based – event as disaster, tectonic hazard, aid role- play, globally interdependent Selected social phenomena (Vid/podcast, wiki, flickr, etc; kml- enabled) Selected social phenomena (Vid/podcast, wiki, flickr, etc; kml- enabled) onesia_Tsunami.gif onesia_Tsunami.gif Students create My Place of 2004 S.Asia tsunami Students create My Place of 2004 S.Asia tsunami heriesAquaculture.pdf heriesAquaculture.pdf Mary Fargher GTE 2009

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30 Preliminary Findings How digital GI about place is constructed matters How digital GI about place is constructed matters Students respond significantly differently to place when using 'traditional GIS (e.g. ArcGIS) as opposed to virtual globes Students respond significantly differently to place when using 'traditional GIS (e.g. ArcGIS) as opposed to virtual globes When students 'construct' their own places in GIS, they appear to develop a deeper knowledge of place which is not solely 'location-orientated' When students 'construct' their own places in GIS, they appear to develop a deeper knowledge of place which is not solely 'location-orientated' Teachers respond positively to a wider pedagogical discussion about GIS and place Teachers respond positively to a wider pedagogical discussion about GIS and place Mary Fargher IoE 2009

31 Research Summary Focus on processes involved in teaching and learning about places with GIS Focus on processes involved in teaching and learning about places with GIS Geography Pedagogy Technology Geography Pedagogy Technology Via interpretive approaches Via interpretive approaches Using traditional GIS, Virtual Globes & Multi- source/Holistic GIS Using traditional GIS, Virtual Globes & Multi- source/Holistic GIS In contribution to a wider critical debate about the role of GIS in schools In contribution to a wider critical debate about the role of GIS in schools Mary Fargher IoE 2009

32 References Dascombe, Brett, (2005)http://gis.esri.com/industries/education/arclessons/ Dascombe, Brett, (2005)http://gis.esri.com/industries/education/arclessons/ Denzin, Norman K; Lincoln, Yvonna S; Eds. ( (2002) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Second Edition.Sage :Thousand Oaks. Denzin, Norman K; Lincoln, Yvonna S; Eds. ( (2002) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Second Edition.Sage :Thousand Oaks. Dunn, C.E. (2007). Participatory GIS – a peoples GIS? Progress in Human Geography 31 No. 5, (2007) DOI: / Dunn, C.E. (2007). Participatory GIS – a peoples GIS? Progress in Human Geography 31 No. 5, (2007) DOI: / Goodchild (2006) The Fourth R? Rethinking GIS Education- ESRI ArcNews Goodchild (2006) The Fourth R? Rethinking GIS Education- ESRI ArcNews Korevec, N. (2002). GIS Assessment of the Vulnerability of a Core Tourist Area in New Orleans to Impacts of Flood Inundation During a Hurricane Event. Trends in Cultural Geography GEOG 7911 Cultural Landscapes, Spring Korevec, N. (2002). GIS Assessment of the Vulnerability of a Core Tourist Area in New Orleans to Impacts of Flood Inundation During a Hurricane Event. Trends in Cultural Geography GEOG 7911 Cultural Landscapes, Spring Lather (1991) Getting Smart: Feminist Research and Pedagogy With/in the Postmodern. Routledge : New York Lather (1991) Getting Smart: Feminist Research and Pedagogy With/in the Postmodern. Routledge : New York OSullivan, D. (2006). Geographical Information science : Critical GIS OSullivan, D. (2006). Geographical Information science : Critical GIS Progress in Human Geography, 30, (6). Progress in Human Geography, 30, (6). Pickles ed; (1995) Ground truth: The social implications of geographic. information systems. Routledge: New York Pickles ed; (1995) Ground truth: The social implications of geographic. information systems. Routledge: New York Schuurman, N. (2000). Trouble in the heartland : GIS and its critics in the 1990s Progress in Human Geography 24, 4 ( ) Schuurman, N. (2000). Trouble in the heartland : GIS and its critics in the 1990s Progress in Human Geography 24, 4 ( ) Unwin (1992) The place of geography Longman:Harlow. Unwin (1992) The place of geography Longman:Harlow. Mary Fargher GTE 2009

33 Thank you for listening…. Any questions? Mary Fargher GTE 2009


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