Presentation on theme: "SO4029 Sociology of the City The Global City & The Future Megalopolis."— Presentation transcript:
SO4029 Sociology of the City The Global City & The Future Megalopolis
Globalization The compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole (Robertson) …all the processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single society, global society (Albrow) an immense enlargement of world communication and a world market (Jameson) The intensification of world-wide social relations (Giddens)
Globalization (Roland Robertson, 1992) 1)Germinal -Europe ( ) 2) Incipient- Europe ( ) 3) Take-off ( ) 4) Struggle for Hegemony ( ) 5) Uncertainty - From Late 1960s Globalization, Civilization & Urbanization
The World City (John Friedmann, 1986) 1) Level of integration into global economy affects city spaces, labour and capital markets 2) World cities form hierarchy of basing points for global capital 3) World cities perform different control functions 4) Sites for capital concentration and accumulation 5) World cities destinations for migration (int/ext) 6) World cities likely to exhibit polarisation (space + class) 7) Social costs in World Cities exceed tax raising capacity of the domestic state
Global City (Saskia Sassen, 1991; 1995) 1) Global Headquarters of TNCs 2) Primate Cities – rich industrial/financial centres 3) Mutually reinforcing economic agglomeration (companies, banks etc) 4) Clear relationship between primate city and its cluster of satellites 5) Specialised place in global DOL – global city distinct from old political, religious, administrative centres
Global City (Sassen) 6) Global cities may start specialised but become multi-functional 7) Centres of global transportation (hubs) 8) Dense connections to other global cities 9) Centres of communication 10) Centres of information, news stations, entertainment, publishing and mass media 11) Attract foreign investment – usually long term legitimate investment as opposed to hot money and speculative investment.
Information City (Manuel Castells, 1991) Space of Flows : Information Flows and the Global City New Industrial Space The Electronic Cottage? (Actor-Network Theory: Bruno Latour – Technological objects as the actants that facilitate global networks)
Global/World Cities Source, GaWC Loughborough University (2006) Alpha World Cities London Frankfurt New York Paris Milan Tokyo Singapore
Restructuring the Economy of the Global City De-Industrialisation – decline of industrial cities Financial Services, (E) Commerce, IT & Retail Marketization & Global Competition
The Global Labour Market & The New Migrant City Offshoring & Inshoring Global Movements & Migrant Cities
Living in the Global City: The Developed World Social Polarisation Thesis (Sassen, 1991; 1995): High Paid Professionals & Low Paid Service Workers Flexibility: High/ Low Road (Michie & Sheehan, 2003) Brazilianization (Beck,2000) End of Work (Rifkin, 2004) The New Economy & Collective Consumption.
Living in the Global City: The Developing World New Global Cities: Rapid Industrialisation Rapid Urbanisation Growth, Uneven Development & Expanding Inequality Select Settlements & Shanty Towns
The Future 0f The Global Urban Society? Global Megalopolis – Utopia or Dystopia? Global Business – Global Workforce – Global Society? Continuing Polarisation & Segregation or New Consensus? Urban Governance & Politics New Community & Social Order or Social Disorganisation & Authoritarianism? (see Mellor, 1989)