Presentation on theme: "Lecture 3: Structure and function. Radcliffe-Brown: anthropology is a natural science Similar in essence to the physical and biological sciences. Social."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 3: Structure and function
Radcliffe-Brown: anthropology is a natural science Similar in essence to the physical and biological sciences. Social phenomena constitute a distinct class of natural phenomena Methodology - empirical observation of social relations Social structure can only be observed in its functioning. The general form is abstracted from the variations of particular instances. A-historical
Society as organism Durkheim - social function and the needs of society. (normal and pathological societies) The function of any part is the contribution it makes to the life of the organism. Individual human beings are connected by a definite set of social relations into an integrated whole. The system of relations by which these units are related is the structure.
Equilibrium The function of any recurrent activity is contribution it makes to the maintenance of the structural continuity. Functional unity - all parts of the social system work together harmoniously without producing persistent conflicts which can neither be resolved nor regulated. If there is functional disunity, a new social health, a new social structure will be found.
Social personality and physiology Social personality is the position occupied by a human being in a social structure. Morals, law, etiquette, religion are all part of social structure The economy, political structures, the law are embedded. They cannot be studied in abstraction.
Witchcraft in Nupe and Gwari Identical environment and frequent contact. Patrilineal succession, patrilocal residence. Similar political system. Both groups believe in witchcraft -. evil, destroying life, power of witches to eat the life-soul of victims.
Nupe Witches are always women. Men posses a power similar to witchcraft. This power is essentially good. control and combat witches. Usually the alleged witch is an older, domineering women who attacks younger men.
Gwari Witches and victims are indiscriminately male and female. Witchcraft discovered by ordinary divination, practiced by both men and women. Anti- witchcraft measures consist in an annual cleansing ritual which embraces whole community.
Divergences in marriage practice Role reversal: Nupe wives, are often successful itinerant traders and much richer than their peasant husbands. Husbands in debt to wives. Men resent this Many married women become itinerant traders. In Nupe morality this should be reserved for childless women.
Korongo and Mesakin The Korongo have no witchcraft beliefs at all The Mesakin are literally obsessed by fears of witchcraft and accusations entail violent quarrels, assaults, and blood revenge. Believed to operate only between maternal kin, especially between a mothers brother and sisters son, the older relative assailing the younger.
Anticipated inheritence In both tribes a man will inherit his mothers brothers herd of cattle Some animals must be transferred to sisters son after first sporting contest after puberty Both groups have age classes
Korongo 6 age classes – gradual process of growing old. Social age and physical age more or less correspond The gift of cattle to the sisters son can be postponed (until the donor is in fact old).
Mesakin 3 age sets: boys before puberty, youths before parenthood, adult men Wrestling, spear-fighting and life in the cattle camps cease at the end of the 2nd grade, at age of about 22. Social old age early in life Gift to sisters son cannot be delayed, but is always refused and has to be forced by community pressure
Structuralist functionalist analysis Witchcraft beliefs are related to specific anxieties and stresses arising in social life. In both cases the imputation of witchcraft serves to uphold the desired state of society by identifying the witch with the transgressor of social norms. Accusations of witchcraft deflect tensions from the maladjusted institutions which cause them so that these institutions can continue to operate.
Evans-Prichard – Nuer social organisation The Nuer constitute an acephalous state, one which lacks legislative, judicial and executive organs. However, it is, far from chaotic. A level of order is provided by the segmentary tribal structure and the lineage system.
hut homestead hamlet tertiary tribal section secondary tribal section primary tribal section tribe Tribal structure