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Pupil Gains Seminar University of Aberdeen 18 Sept 2008 Pupil Gains and CPD Donald Christie*, Stephen McKinney** and Mary Welsh* On behalf of the rest.

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Presentation on theme: "Pupil Gains Seminar University of Aberdeen 18 Sept 2008 Pupil Gains and CPD Donald Christie*, Stephen McKinney** and Mary Welsh* On behalf of the rest."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pupil Gains Seminar University of Aberdeen 18 Sept 2008 Pupil Gains and CPD Donald Christie*, Stephen McKinney** and Mary Welsh* On behalf of the rest of the AERS LLT Project 2 team:- Christine Fraser***, Aileen Kennedy*, Lesley Reid****, Morwenna Griffiths****, Alastair Wilson* (Univ. of *Strathclyde, **Glasgow, ***Aberdeen, ****Edinburgh)

2 The Applied Educational Research Scheme Four collaborative research networks, funded by Scottish Funding Council and the Scottish Government (2004-2009). Twin aims 1. To enhance research capacity in education in Scotland 2. To carry out worthwhile research relevant to national priorities for education

3 AERS Learners, Learning and Teaching Network – Project 2 Teachers as Learners Research questions: How is teachers professional learning understood and realised in Scotland? How do teachers currently advance/address their own professional development/learning? To what extent are schools professional learning communities? To what extent are teachers professional needs and aspirations currently met?

4 Development of project Diverse backgrounds/interests of LLTN Project 2 team Large body of literature on professional learning and CPD for our literature review and conceptual analysis Complex, multidimensional nature of teachers professional learning Limitations of conceptualisation of CPD using existing single frameworks

5 Development: process Examination of existing frameworks Suggestion of composite framework domain of influence capacity for professional autonomy and transformative practice sphere of action Application of composite framework to literature on 3 large-scale empirical studies to LLTN2 empirical data

6 Summary of Triple Lens Framework Framework (Lens) Terms of categorisation What is being categorised? 1. Aspects of professional learning Domains: Personal/ social/ occupational Domain of influence of professional learning 2. Analytical framework for CPD Continuum: Transmission/ transitional/ transformation Capacity for professional autonomy and transformative practice supported by the learning 3. Quadrants of teacher learning Dimensions: Formal/informal Planned/incidental Sphere of action in which the learning takes place

7 Lens 3 – Sphere of action (Fraser et al., 2007) PLANNEDINCIDENTAL INFORMAL FORMAL Chartered teacher module classes Education Authority courses In-school courses School development meetings Action Research Projects Joint forward planning Web-based networks Sharing professional experiences at assessment moderation meetings Incidental conversations at teacher network meetings Staffroom chat Corridor culture Photocopier conversations

8 Framework: Advantages Conceptual: multi-faceted approach for a multi-faceted problem Analytical: enables focus on groups of themes at individual, individual/group, external levels can integrate themes between levels Organisational: supports collaborative working

9 ESRC TLRP Scottish Extension Project: Supporting group work in Scottish Schools [Donald Christie, Andy Tolmie, Christine Howe, Emma Jessiman (Strathclyde) Keith Topping, Allen Thurston, Caroline Donaldson (Dundee)] Linked to TLRP Phase II SPRinG Project (Galton, Blatchford, Kutnick) ScotSPRinG focused investigation on P6/P7 stage, age range 9-12 (KS2) Curriculum area: Primary Science Looking at composite and non-composite classes and Urban and rural school contexts Looked at both cognitive and affective outcomes

10 Research Design Initial Survey Two-phase intervention Phase 1: Social and communication skills training Phase 2: Collaborative group work in science topic studies Intervention sample: 24 schools/classes (+ 3 control classes); 31 teachers; and c. 600 pupils in P6/P7 classes (age 9-12) Classroom observations Observation of individual pupils Ratings of classroom environment Pre- and post-test battery General attainment measures (PIPS) Specific attainment measures in science Attitudes, social relations, self esteem measures, etc.

11 The CPD intervention with teachers Three days of professional development: Day 1: Key principles underlying collaborative group work; Social/communication skills training package; Assessment battery and observation Day 2: Advanced group work training; Applying group work skills across curriculum; Introduction to science topics Specific science assessments Day 3: Feedback, reflection and evaluation Researcher visits; networking opportunities Provision of classroom resources and materials

12 In-service session

13 Teacher-initiated intervention with pupils Phase 1 (12 weeks) - Group work skills training Group work sessions (1 hour weekly) using training materials and activities Group work as part of general curriculum activity (c. 1 hour weekly) Phase 2 (6-8 weeks) – Group work in Science Developing group work skills and applying them in two science topics/units: Evaporation (The Missing Water Mystery) Forces (Down the Slope Car Race)

14 Gains in Science attainment InterventionControl Single-AgeCompositeTotal Intervention UrbanRuralUrbanRural Evaporation & Condensation Pre-test Post-test (Max=19) 8.59 (2.83) 10.92 (3.59) 9.92 (3.14) 12.15 (3.25) 9.85 (5.07) 12.67 (3.17) 9.26 (2.73) 12.48 (3.98) 9.23 (3.59) 12.20 (3.56) 10.30 (3.26) 10.14 (3.00) Force & Motion Pre-test Post-test (Max=34) 20.94 (5.45) 23.56 (5.26) 22.30 (4.57) 24.38 (5.08) 19.87 (4.47) 22.78 (5.19) 19.86 (5.12) 23.59 (4.94) 20.52 (4.91) 23.54 (5.19) 23.15 (5.09) 23.88 (5.04) ANCOVAs E&C pre- v. post- F (1, 509) = 63.31, p <.001, partial eta squared =.29 F&M pre- v. post- F (1, 460) = 43.10, p <.001, partial eta squared =.23

15 What caused cognitive gains? Regression analysis showed cognitive gains predicted by improved group work quality, in terms of: quality of teacher support: non-intrusive, scaffolding collaborative quality of pupil dialogue: sharing ideas and explanations

16 Affective Gains Measures ( pre- and post-test) People in Your Class sociometric instrument Harter General Worth Self-esteem Scale Collaborative group work had clear impact on social relations little strong evidence of self-esteem impact, except for urban single-age (but n.b. brief measure) signs of separation/tension between routes to cognitive and social gains

17 What teachers valued about CPD (No. of statements coded) Welcoming of opportunities to network with other teachers (21) Welcoming of opportunities to share issues and solutions with other teachers (20) The materials provided a good structure that illustrated progression and coherence (21) The CPD had a positive impact on managing group work (23)

18 Teachers views about pupil gains (N coded comments) As a result of the implementing the project there was: increased science knowledge and understanding, and skills in children (12) increased confidence in children (12) increased self-esteem in children (12) increased social skills in children (11) increased social inclusion within the class (8)

19 Findings from group work study Most schools are not currently using group work effectively Collaborative group work in Science can be very effective, and yield both cognitive and social gains Successful group work in Science is associated with tasks that emphasise children sharing, discussing, agreeing and recording. Good planning, preparation (structured generic + specific training for pupils) and implementation of group work enables it to yield social as well as cognitive benefits. Successful group work is associated with teacher adopting a non-directive, supporting role. Good quality staff development for teachers makes a big difference

20 Applying the triple lens framework. Attributes of successful CPD, yielding pupil gains: 1. All three domains of influence engaged: Personal; social; and occupational - esp. social 2. On the spectrum of types of professional learning: Both transmissive and transformative elements Key was teachers exercising autonomy and mediating the intervention 3. Spheres of action: All four quadrants in operation and valued by teachers

21 Contacts Selected Publications: FRASER, C., KENNEDY, A., REID, L. and MCKINNEY, S. (2007) Teachers continuing professional development (CPD): contested concepts, understandings and models, Journal of In-Service Education, 33 (2), 153-169. THURSTON, A., CHRISTIE, D., HOWE, C.J., TOLMIE, A. & TOPPING, K.J. (2008) Effects of continuing professional development on group work practices in Scottish primary schools. Journal of In-service Education, 34(3), 263-282.

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