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Sociology of the City Revision Week. WK 2 Urbanisation Origins of Cities – 6-10k years ago Ancient Cities – (Sjoberg) Urban Revolution – (Childe) Early.

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Presentation on theme: "Sociology of the City Revision Week. WK 2 Urbanisation Origins of Cities – 6-10k years ago Ancient Cities – (Sjoberg) Urban Revolution – (Childe) Early."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sociology of the City Revision Week

2 WK 2 Urbanisation Origins of Cities – 6-10k years ago Ancient Cities – (Sjoberg) Urban Revolution – (Childe) Early Western & Classical Cities (Greco-Roman era) Decline of Urbanisation (Middle ages) to rise of pre-industrial Cities (Renaissance city of late Middle Ages) Modernity, Capilalism, Industrialisation & Urbanisation Postmodern (post-industrial) Cities

3 WK 3 Key Themes & Approaches Historical – Sjoberg, Childe, Mumford Early Urban Reformers – Booth, Rowntree, Mayhew, Engels (UK) Adams, Riis (USA) Modernity & Political Economy: Weber*, Durkheim, Marx & Engels*, Veblen, Benjamin, Tönnies, Simmel* Urban Sociology: The Ecological Approach: The Chicago School of Park, Burgess, Wirth et al. Late 1960s onwards New Urban Sociology: Urban Political Economy: Lefebvre, Conflict & Capital Accumulation - Castells, Harvey, Urban Growth Machine Logan & Molotch Globalization & World Cities: Sassen, Hall The Socio-Spatial Approach: Gottdiener & Hutchison (See also Contemporary Cultural/Postmodern Approaches: Zukin, Sennett, Bourdieu, Habermas, Foucault, Derrida, Baudrillard, Hannigan)

4 WK4 The Social Map Homo Sociologicus & the privileging of the external Sociology, Psychology & Biology Social Construction or Co-construction The Social Map - Social Classification, Cognitive Parsimony & Routinisation, Emotion, Complexity Reduction: Reciprocal Constraint & Reciprocal Reinforcement, The Janus Self (Homogeneity & Heterogeneity), Power Relations (Ideology, Inertia & Dependency) Urban Settings – Complexity, Functional Organisation (Bureaucracy & Specialisation) Social Interaction & Social Control (Reciprocal Constraint & Reciprocal Reinforcement, Civil Inattention,The Civilising Process, Regimentation, Mass Media, Authority & Surveillance) Over-rationalisation (environment and interaction) (consumer culture)

5 WK5 Urbanism 1 – City and (Lost?) Community Theme – Greater Freedom v. Greater Isolation, Social Disorganisation & Estrangement Defining Community Rural to Urban – Durkheim, Tonnies etc. Simmel - Metropolis and Mental Life Wirth – The Urban Way of Life Gans – Urban Villagers Suburbia & the Suburban Way of Life Putnam – Bowling Alone

6 WK6 Urbanism 2 – City, Identity & (transformed) Community New Forms of Selfhood- Ascribed, Simple ID to Achieved, Complex ID, Expanded Roles & Interactions Dominance of the Visual – Simmel, Veblen, Benjamin, Foucault, Goffman Consumption & Urban ID Benjamin – Arcades Project, City Sketches, the Flaneur Time – Night Life/ 24 hr society – )(see Melbin, Chatterton & Holland) – Hedonism & Play Civilisation & Social Control – Elias, Foucault, Bourdieu Urban society as Imagined Community – Anderson (see also Kornhauser & Mass Society) Media & Imagined Community/Mass Society – Celebs, Moral Panics (Cohen ) & Urban Myths Media Reception – Hypodermic & Active Models Sub- Cultures & New Forms Of Community – Fischer, Bellah, Maffesoli

7 WK 7 Stratification, Inequality & Spatial Segregation Urban Social Classes (change from rural order) Capitalist commodification of labour/space Laissez Faire/Social Darwinism & Uneven Development Studies of Early Urban Inequality: (UK) Booth Mayhew, Rowntree, Engels (US) Riis, Veblen, Adams Late 19 th & Early 20 th C. Social Strife – Rent Strikes, Unions, Reform Keynesian Restructuring of Capitalism (Post 1930s) Ethnic & Gender Divisions Late Modernity (from mid 70s) – return to (neo) classical economics/marketisation Urban Polarisation: A Growing Gap? – Wealth, Income, Housing Gentrification & Ghettoization? – Competition, Displacement, Fragmentation, Polarisation, Underclass, Gating

8 WK8 Urban Disorder, Crime, Deviance, Surveillance and Social Control The Dangerous Classes (19 th C.) – Segregation, Religion, Temperance & Rational Recreation Causes of Urban Crime - Individual Deviance/ Immorality, Anomie, Alienation, Social Disorganisation, Compositional Factors, Subcultures, Culture of Poverty & Underclass Norms, Uneven Development and Scale, Disadvantage, Racial Disparity, (Hyper) Segregation, Isolation, Media & Difference Causes of Urban Crime – Strain Theories – Merton and others Opportunity & Insecurity (Savage et al) Forms of Urban Crime & Deviance Civil Disorder & Riot – Collective Strain? The New Dangerous Classes? Social Control, Law & Order – Policing & Prisons Social Control & Surveillance Society - Mass Media & Governmentality – Surveillance Society (Lyon)

9 WK9 Urban Governance & Politics Power, Politics & Policy The Structure of Urban Politics Theories of Urban Governance – Elite Theories/ Public Choice/ Urban Political Economy/Urban Growth Machine/Urban Regime Theory/Consensus Changing Nature of Urban Governance Urban Democracy – Corruption, Machine Politics & Bossism Urban Governance & Collective Consumption (Castells) Challenge to Collective Consumption (1970s onwards) Political Participation (Local Elections) – understanding declining turnout – no need, no point, privatisation, secessionism, centralisation, globalization Filling the Gap: Urban Social Movements Metropolitan Social Policy: The Ongoing Debate (liberal social intervention v conservative market intervention) Social Justice (Harvey, 1973)

10 WK 10 Modern & Postmodern Spaces and Places The sociological distinction between space and place Lefebvre – Space as Experienced, Perceived & Imagined Harvey – Created Spaces Topophilia; Space, Place, Emotion, Authenticity - Yi Fu Tuan Rational Society & The Rationalisation of Urban Space (see Disenchantment, Weber) Urban Planning – Grand Visions – Howards Garden City (1890s onwards), Le Corbusiers Rational/Geometric City (1920s +) Modern Cities - High Rise, Homogeneity & Disenchantment, Garden Suburbs, New Towns, Sprawl, MMR New Urbanism – traditional neighbourhood design/ anti-modernist anti - sprawl etc. (see Jacobs) Postmodern City (Derrida, Foucault, Baudrillard) & Fantasy City (Hannigan) – Re-enchantment of space? Global Cities – Homogeneity, Rational/Functional Spaces with Enchanted Veneer, Glocalization

11 WK 11 Global City Defining Globalization – see also Robertsons phases of globalization The World City (Friedmann), The Global City (Sassen), Information City & Space of Flows (Castells) Restructuring the Economy of the Global City: Developed Economies – Deindustrialisation (shift to IT, Financial Services and other forms of Commercial/Service industry) The Global Labour Market & The New Migrant City – Offshoring/Inshoring - Global Movements & Migrant Cities Life & Work in Global City (Developed) : Polarisation (Sassen), Brazilianization (Beck), Flexibility, End of Work ( Rifkin) Life & Work in Global City (Developing) : Rapid Industrialisation,Rapid Urbanisation, Growth, Uneven Development & Expanding Inequality, Select Settlements & Shanty Towns The Future of The Global Urban Society? Global Megalopolis – Utopia or Dystopia? Continuing Polarisation & Segregation or New Consensus? Urban Governance & Politics. New Community & Social Order or Social Disorganisation & Authoritarianism? (see Mellor, 1989)

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