Presentation on theme: "Forced Unlawful Carnal Knowledge: Equality for Men & Women References: Eigenberg, H.M. (2000). Correctional Officers' definitions of rape in male prisons."— Presentation transcript:
Forced Unlawful Carnal Knowledge: Equality for Men & Women References: Eigenberg, H.M. (2000). Correctional Officers' definitions of rape in male prisons. Journal of Criminal Justice 28, 435- 449 Rogers, P. (1997). Post traumatic stress disorder following male rape. Journal of Mental Health 6, 5-9 Walby, S., Allen, J. (2004). Domestic violence, sexual assault and staking: Findings from the British Crime Survey. Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, 276: March 2004
Home Office Research Study Estimates the prevalence of sexual assaults against men and women : 7% of women suffered a serious sexual assault at least once in their lifetime. 1.5% of men had suffered a serious sexual assault at some point in their lives. Women are the overwhelming majority of the most heavily abused group p 7 MALE – TO - FEMALE sexual violence is therefore the most prevalently reported. Due to this, the Home Office publishes a separate document on the rape and sexual assault statistics primarily representing female victims. This fact has led many individuals to marginalise and ignore the 0.9% of the male population who have been the victims of rape. Within these documents little or no analysis or information is given pertaining to this 0.9%.
Inequality in Sexual Violence Feminist psychologists / sociologists and Civil rights theorists have exclusively held the market for research and activism surrounding the issue of rape. The feminist research on rape in the community has informed social theory, victim centred therapy and has facilitated legal and political changes to the definition and punishment of rape. While the existence of a hugely gendered threat of sexual violence faces women in British Society and across the world, the treatment of rape has improved for women due to the advances and effort of feminist theorists and activists. This improvement in the understanding of sexual violence has not been extended to the issue of MALE RAPE. Therefore I suggest that rape is an example of the way in which men and women are not equal in modern society.
Rogers: PTSD following male rape Sexual Offences Act (1994) introduced rape of a man through anal penetration. Previously, forced anal penetration of a man was considered to be non - consensual buggery which carried a lesser penalty. Male rape has received significantly less study than female rape. Rogers (1997) stated that there was no UK or EU study into the prevalence of male rape. Male rape survivors are less likely to seek support / help after assault. Men experience similar trauma to women however they face a two edged sword as many experience : A loss of Masculinity and confusion about their Sexual orientation ( Myers, 1989). Some men believe that the assault occurred because they were not man enough to avoid or escape the situation. General awareness of issues surrounding male rape are exceptionally poor even among health care professionals. ( Example p 8) Attitudes to male rape have not changed significantly in the last decade
Eigenberg: Male Rape in Prison From the 1950' s male rape was considered to be the act of ' situational ' homosexuals, which was a label applied both the victim and their rapists Research shows that certain types of men are viewed as legitimate victims who precipitate their victimisation. In prison both consensual and coercive sexual contact is prohibited, however some prison staff use the threat of male rape to control the prison population through failing to report incidents. Most victims fail to report their abuse. Presumptions about male rape – myths similar to female rape previous to feminist study and activism. Theorists and researchers studying male rape are now applying feminist theory to better understand the cause, experience and trauma of victims. A new focus on rape in prison as an expression of power and control, replacing the myths of weakness, closet homosexuality and sex starvation
Real men would fight to the death What about real women? Theories of masculinity and femininity fail to fully comprehend why it is essential to portray male rape victims as weak, homosexuals, as effeminate men, because in our culture the definition of masculinity does not allow for male rape victims Male rape victims are the most stigmatised group, as heterosexual male rapists redefine their acts to reinforce their status as a real man. Correctional officers display the belief that victims are latent Homosexuals who liked to be raped, ask for it, or enjoy it. Otherwise as true men they would fight to the death rather than be raped. 12% of officers believe that some inmates deserve to be raped 16% of officers believe that homosexual inmates deserve to be raped 25% of officers believe that engaging in consensual sexual acts once negates the ability to be raped. The definitions of rape are not equally applied to men and women.
Conclusions: Not equal While sexualized violence such as rape is predominantly experienced from men to women, victims of male rape are the most stigmatised of all groups. The gender stereotypes of masculinity do not allow for male rape victims, men must face not only the trauma, disease and mental scaring experienced by women, but also the questioning of their very right and ability to be a man in British society. Men lack the support network of groups, councillors and other men to cope with this trauma. Many support groups are women only and councillors are ill equipped to deal with the incidence of male rape. Attitudes towards male rape reinforce the rape myth and a lack of research and study into the causes, effects and treatment of male rape victims equates to a position of lower social status, stigmatisation and self loathing which can only be associated with institutionalised sexual discrimination
Conclusions: Progress For British women while the incidence of the ' first rape ' is much higher in 2006 than it was in 1986, the experience of reporting rape has be significantly improved through the application of feminist study. ( Walby, 2004) The ' second rape ' referring to the trial, has been improved significantly as victims can give evidence by video and can in many cases elect for the perpetrator not to be present during their attendance at court. The ' third rape ' by the media continues to be a problem, as insult, innuendo and intimidation are publicly aired affecting the victim and the attitudes of all around her. However for the British man, the experience, reporting, support, trial and media coverage have remained unaltered despite legal recognition of male rape (1994) The Bravery of the first male victim of rape to obtain a conviction in the Old Bailey in (1995) compares only with the female victims of rape decades before the benefit of feminist theory and study changed the perception, procedure and myth related blame surrounding victims of rape.