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Global Inequality A lecture by Dr Christopher Kollmeyer.

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1 Global Inequality A lecture by Dr Christopher Kollmeyer

2 Lecture Outline Lecture Addresses Three Questions: 1.Whats the extent of global inequality today? (answer: massive) 2.Whats the trend in global inequality? Within countries (answer: becoming more unequal) Between countries (answer: debatable) 3.What are the dominant explanations? Modernization (neoliberal) theory Dependency (world-systems) theory

3 The Champagne Glass of Inequality: Share of Global Income by Quintiles Bottom 60 percentile have less than 6% of the worlds income.

4 Worlds Top-Ten Billionaires, 2007 Note: Scotlands GDP equals about £80 billion per year.

5 Global Poverty The World Bank estimates that 1.3 billion people live on less than 50p per day ($1)

6 Living standard of the global poor


8 Life Expectancy and Income

9 Between-Country Inequality: The Global Distribution of Income and Population 15 16 6 60 25 78

10 Wealthiest: Western European countries, British Off-Shoots, and Japan Poorest: Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries Geography of Global Inequality

11 The North-South Divide This picture of the Earth at night shows the wealthy Global North, illuminating its communities at night, and the much poorer Global South, which cant afford to do so.

12 Within-Country Inequality: Income share of richest 20 th percentile to poorest 20 th percentile Within-Country Inequality: Income share of richest 20 th percentile to poorest 20 th percentile.

13 Question 2: What are the recent trends in global income inequality? Within countries: Becoming more unequal in most countries Between countries: Becoming more unequal, except for China and other countries in East Asia, which are catch up with the West.

14 Example of Within-Country Income Inequality: The United States, 1913-2002 Source:Thomas Piketty and Emmuanuel Saez. 2003. Income Inequality in the United States, 1913 2002. Quarterly Journal of Economics.

15 Inequality rising in most Anglo-Celtic countries, but remaining steady in most Continental European countries Emmanuel Saez. 2004. Income and Wealth Concentration in a Historical and International Perspective. National Bureau of Economic Research, USA.

16 Changes in Between-Country Income Inequality, 1950-2000 Source: Sutcliffe, B. 2004 World Inequality and Globalization. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol 20, No. 1 Begin of decline Begin of Chinas economic rise

17 Absolute vs Relative Inequality A Hypothetical Example 1970 2000 Country A£1,000£2,000 Country B£15,000£30,000 Absolute Income Gap £14,000£28,000 Relative Inequality 15:115:1

18 Source: World Bank 2007 Note: Measured in constant 1993 US$ adjusted for PPP. Equals approx: 73p in todays GBP East Asia South Asia S-S Africa Global Poverty Declines: World population living off less than US$1 per day by region. 1981-2004

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