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Democratization and Minority Rights Human Rights PI4553.

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Presentation on theme: "Democratization and Minority Rights Human Rights PI4553."— Presentation transcript:

1 Democratization and Minority Rights Human Rights PI4553

2 Questions Why are minority rights important and what part do they play in the larger scheme of human rights? Why are minority rights important and what part do they play in the larger scheme of human rights? Why does democratization encourage conflict between majorities and minorities? Why does democratization encourage conflict between majorities and minorities? How and why has democratization been tied to minority rights in Central and Eastern Europe? How and why has democratization been tied to minority rights in Central and Eastern Europe?

3 Democratization and Ethnicity Democracy in ethnically homogenous states Democracy in ethnically homogenous states Japan1.5% minority Japan1.5% minority UK8.0% minority UK8.0% minority France9.1% minority France9.1% minority USA30% minority USA30% minority

4 Democratization and Ethnicity Democratization in Ethnically heterogeneous states Democratization in Ethnically heterogeneous states Romania6.6% Hungarians Romania6.6% Hungarians Bulgaria9.4% Turks Bulgaria9.4% Turks Slovakia9.7% Hungarians Slovakia9.7% Hungarians Ukraine17.3% Russians Ukraine17.3% Russians Latvia29% Russians Latvia29% Russians

5 What can we say about ethnic cleansing? Michael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy Michael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy 1. Murderous cleansing is modern and thus the dark side of democracy a. Link between the demos and the ethnos b. Legacies of settler colonies c. Liberalization may be violent d. Liberal democracies were built on ethnic cleansing 2. Ethnic hostility rises when ethnicity trumps class as the main form of social stratification

6 What can we say about ethnic cleansing? Michael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy Michael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy 3. Murderous cleansing is reached when: a. When two ethnic groups lay claim to the same territory b. Both groups have considerable legitimacy and some possible chance of implementing control 4. Murderous cleansing happens a. The less powerful side is bolstered to fight rather than submit by believing that aid will be coming from outside, or; b. The stronger side believes it has such overwhelming military power and ideological legitimacy to win

7 What can we say about ethnic cleansing? Michael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy Michael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy 5. Murderous cleansing occurs when the state is in control and radicalised amid an unstable geo-political environment 6. Murderous cleansing is rarely the initial intent of perpetrators 7. There are three main levels of perpetrator a. Radical elites running party-states b. Bands of paramilitaries c. Core constituencies providing mass though not majority support

8 What can we say about ethnic cleansing? 8. Finally, ordinary people are brought by normal social structures into committing murderous ethnic cleansing

9 Democratization and Conflict Azerbaijan (Nagorno-Karabakh Armenians) Azerbaijan (Nagorno-Karabakh Armenians) Moldova (Russians) Moldova (Russians) Georgia (Ossetians, Abkhazians) Georgia (Ossetians, Abkhazians) Yugoslavia (Croatia, Serbs, Bosniaks, Albanians) Yugoslavia (Croatia, Serbs, Bosniaks, Albanians)

10 Democratization and Conflict Does Democratization provide the grounds for conflict? Does Democratization provide the grounds for conflict? Yes (Mansfield and Snyder 1996, 2002) Yes (Mansfield and Snyder 1996, 2002) No (Galbreath 2004) No (Galbreath 2004)

11 Defining Democracy Beetham (1992) defines democracy as a mode of decision-making about collectively binding rules and policies over which the people exercise control. Rule by the people. Is this enough to define democracy? Who is the people? Beetham (1992) defines democracy as a mode of decision-making about collectively binding rules and policies over which the people exercise control. Rule by the people. Is this enough to define democracy? Who is the people? Kaldor and Vejvoda (2002) define democracy as a set of rules, procedures and institutions. Is this enough? Kaldor and Vejvoda (2002) define democracy as a set of rules, procedures and institutions. Is this enough? Przeworski (1994) argues that democracy is mitigated conflict. Przeworski (1994) argues that democracy is mitigated conflict.

12 Defining Democracy 1. Elected Officials: The concept of democracy usually conjures up images of individuals at the ballot box voting in a fair election. Hence, inclusive suffrage is a must. 2. Associational Autonomy: A deeply entrenched civil society should be present in a democratic state.

13 Defining Democracy National Integrity: One of the most difficult characteristics to fulfil for reformers are the criterion that there must be a state accepted by all participants as the only legitimate set of government institutions. National Integrity: One of the most difficult characteristics to fulfil for reformers are the criterion that there must be a state accepted by all participants as the only legitimate set of government institutions. Authoritarian elimination: The elimination of all authoritarian blocs is a fundamental characteristic of democratic governance. Authoritarian elimination: The elimination of all authoritarian blocs is a fundamental characteristic of democratic governance. Exclusive Democracy: The final capstone of characteristics is that political actors with the regime should view democracy as the only possible political process, or the only game in town. Exclusive Democracy: The final capstone of characteristics is that political actors with the regime should view democracy as the only possible political process, or the only game in town.

14 Democratization and Ethnicity Return to National Integrity: Return to National Integrity: State building vs nation building State building vs nation building Ex. Latvia Ex. Latvia Tension between the demos and ethnos Tension between the demos and ethnos

15 Democratization and Minorities What do we mean by minority rights? What do we mean by minority rights? Social Rights Social Rights Economic Rights Economic Rights Political Rights Political Rights Why are these important for democracy? Why are these important for democracy?

16 IOs and minority rights Why are European organizations interested in minority rights? Why are European organizations interested in minority rights? Regional Integration Regional Integration Security Security Democracy Democracy

17 IOs and minority rights Which organizations are interested? Which organizations are interested? Council of Europe Council of Europe European Union European Union OSCE OSCE WEU WEU UN UN NATO? NATO?

18 Case Study: Latvia and Estonia Soviet legacy of nationalities policies Soviet legacy of nationalities policies Baltic Nationalism Baltic Nationalism Baltic state-building/nation-building Baltic state-building/nation-building Citizenship Citizenship Language Language Education Education European Organizations European Organizations

19 Case Study: Latvia and Estonia European Organizations European Organizations OSCE OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights Field Missions Field Missions High Commissioner on National Minorities High Commissioner on National Minorities

20 Case Study: Latvia and Estonia European Organizations European Organizations Council of Europe Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities Vienna Commission Vienna Commission Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE)

21 Case Study: Latvia and Estonia European Organizations European Organizations European Union European Union Regular Reports from (European Commission) Regular Reports from (European Commission) European Parliament European Parliament General Secretariat for Human Rights General Secretariat for Human Rights

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23 A European National Minority Rights Regime? If an international human rights regime exists, how do we know? If an international human rights regime exists, how do we know? Interests Interests Whose interests manifested where? Whose interests manifested where? Power Power Does it come down to power asymmetries? Does it come down to power asymmetries? Knowledge Knowledge Norm transfer as learning? Norm transfer as learning?

24 Conclusion Why are minority rights important and what part do they play in the larger scheme of human rights? Why are minority rights important and what part do they play in the larger scheme of human rights? Why does democratization encourage conflict between majorities and minorities? Why does democratization encourage conflict between majorities and minorities? How and why has democratization been tied to minority rights in Central and Eastern Europe? How and why has democratization been tied to minority rights in Central and Eastern Europe?


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