2 Lectures 3 & 4: Social Stereotyping Bargh, J.A. (1999). The cognitive monster: The case against the controllability of automatic stereotype efects. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual Process Theories in Social Psychology (pp ). New York: Guilford.Blair, I.V. (2002). The malleability of automatic stereotypes and prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6,Hilton, J., & Von Hippel, W. (1996). Stereotypes. Annual Review of Psychology, 47,Macrae, C.N., & Bodenhausen, G.V. (2000). Social Cognition: Thinking categorically about others. Annual Review of Psychology, 51,Lecture 1 – Stereotype ActivationLecture 2 – Stereotype Application
3 What Are Stereotypes?“There is neither time nor opportunity for intimate acquaintances. Instead we notice a trait which marks a well known type and fill in the rest of the picture by means of the stereotypes we carry about in our heads.”“Our stereotyped world is not necessarily the world we should like it to be. It is simply the kind of world we expect it to be.”Walter Lippmann (1922)
6 A Chilling Example!Children (24-28 months) touch more own sex gender-typed toys (Levy,1999).
7 Who Should Repair the Car? Levy, Sadovsky, & Troseth (2000)preschoolers (3-4 years) viewed men as more competent than women in male sex-typed jobs and women as more competent than men in feminine jobs.
8 Habits of ThoughtWhat happens if childhood socialization repeatedly furnishes one with stereotype-related beliefs?Do stereotypes become habits of mind?
9 Is Stereotype Activation Inevitable? “every event has certain marks that serve as a cue to bring the category of prejudgment into action…A person with dark brown skin will activate whatever concept of African American is dominant in our mind.”Allport (1954, p. 21)“the mere presentation of a stimulus person activates certain classification processes that occur automatically and without conscious intent.”Brewer (1988, p. 5)
10 “…because the stereotype has been frequently activated in the past, it is a well-learned set of associations that is automatically activated in the presence of a member (or symbolic equivalent) of the target group.”Devine (1989, p. 6)
11 The Basic Problem!On exposure to a target, what gets activated in mind?
14 Automatic Activation: Some Early Evidence Dovidio et al. (1986)stereotypes are knowledge structuresassociative networkssemantic priming to access associative knowledgeletter string taskdoctor/nursedoctor/butter
15 Dovidio et al’s (1986) Paradigm: Could X ever be true of Y? Task (verification task)participants presented with a priming label (i.e., black or white) followed shortly afterwards by a personality trait (e.g., musical) or non-person descriptor (e.g., metallic)TraitsWhite Blackambitious musicalpractical sensitiveconventional lazystubborn imitative
16 Resultsparticipants responded more quickly when stereotypic than non-stereotypic items were presentedProblems?task demands (triggering category activation)labels (or words and images functionally equivalent?)
17 The Invisible Prime: Purdue & Gurtman (1990) ‘kind’is the word favorable or unfavorable?traits preceded by subliminal labels (old or young)Results - facilitatory priming observedProblems - words, evaluative (rather than semantic) priming
18 Devine’s (1989) Two-Process Model power of childhood socializationacquiring cultural beliefssocietal knowledge vs. personal beliefsindividual differences in prejudicehigh vs. low prejudicecomponents of stereotypingautomatic activationcontrolled inhibitionreplacing stereotypes with personal beliefs
19 Knowledge of Cultural Stereotypes Stereotype Contentsbagpipesboozestingybigots = humanitarians (Devine, 1989)
20 Evaluate Donald Paradigm (Devine, 1989) TasksPhase 1: parafoveal vigilance task (Negroes, lazy, blues, Blacks, Africa, basketball)Phase 2: person evaluation (Donald - Srull & Wyer, ) - ambiguously hostile behavioursResults: high-P participants rated Donald to be more hostile than did low-P participants
21 Automatic Stereotyping: A Slight Modification Lepore & Brown (1997)categories vs. traits (Blacks vs. lazy) - what activates thestereotype?category primes: only high-P participants activate the stereotypetrait primes: both high-P and low-P participants activate thestereotypeindividual differences in stereotype activation (Locke et al., 1994; Wittenbrink et al., 1997)
22 Challenging Orthodoxy: Is Stereotype Activation Really Inevitable? triggering stereotype activation (are images and words equivalent?)Belly Dancer
23 Determinants of Stereotype Activation: Target Salience frequency of occurrenceare you unusual?immediate contextare you contextually distinctive?processing goalsare you relevant to my current processing concerns?
28 Stereotypes as Mental Tools: Gilbert & Hixon (1991) “anyone who has ever lent a socket wrench to a forgetful neighbor knows that a tool is useful only if one can find it. Stereotypes are forms of information and, as such, are thought to be stored in memory in a dormant state until they are activated for use.”Gilbert & Hixon (1991, p. 510)attention and stereotyping
29 Gilbert & Hixon (1991): Busyness and Stereotyping Taskparticipants observe a woman (Caucasian or Asian) turning over cards with a single word fragment written on each card.POLI_Ecomplete the fragment with the first word that comes to mind (SHY, SHORT, RICE) - participants busy (digit rehearsal) or non-busy (control)Results: only non-busy participants activate the stereotype (i.e.,conditional automaticity)
30 Processing Goals: The Inattentive Shopper (Macrae et al. 1997)
33 Accessing Stereotypical Knowledge Macrae et al. (1997) in ‘spot’ of bother“beyond the hopeful implication that dermatologists are unlikely to stereotype their patients, what is the real-world relevance of studies involving such pre-semantic processing goals?”Bargh (1999)
34 Context and Stereotype Activation: Wittenbrink et al. (2001) In an evaluative priming task, activation of African-American stereotype was moderated by the context in which targets were located.
35 Summary Things Worth Knowing What are stereotypes? Process and consequences of stereotype activationNext Week1. Stereotype Application
37 Why Do People Apply Stereotypes? ‘personality’ approaches‘socio-cultural’ accounts‘cognitive’ perspective
38 Applying Stereotypes: Possessing a ‘Dodgy’ Personality authoritarian personality (Adorno et al., 1950)intra-psychic conflict from childhood (internalized values of the father) is projected to other people (members of minority groups – ethnic, relgious, political) - societal scapegoating.
39 Applying Stereotypes: Learning to Discriminate socio-cultural approaches (e.g., realistic conflict theory, Sherif & Sherif, 1953)stereotypes are conceptualized as negative beliefs about a group that serve to legitimize the existing social structure (i.e., system justification)
40 Applying Stereotypes: Cognitive Efficiency cognitive perspective (Hamilton, 1981)stereotyping is a product of category activation and basic cognitive limitations.
41 Applying Stereotypes: Basic Paradox perils of stereotypical thinkingdiscriminationprejudicelegal sanctionsbenefits of stereotypical thinkingcognitive efficiency
42 What Can Stereotyping Do For You? content-related effectsstructural effects (processing consequences)perceptionmemoryattention
44 Stereotypes and Information Processing: Perceptual Effects does stereotype application moderate the ease with which people can detect information in the world?if so, which type of information is most facilitated?
45 Activating Social Stereotypes: A Functional Analysis stereotypical thinking is functional (Allport, 1954)reducing the information-processing burdenease of detectionperceptual identificationmeasurement issues - climbing inside the head
46 The Need For Speed: Categorical Person Perception is Efficient perils of a cluttered mindenter the cognitive misertarget simplification/elaborationsome cognitive benefitsstimulus locationstimulus identificationcategory priming
47 Find the Word (Stereotype Priming): Congruent vs. Irrelevant Q H A P P Y T VD P V M N I O BA E L Q B Y V TR N M K V R E AI P M I V W M LN C C N Y T A LG M L D Y T V RG S H N L R I O
48 Find the WordsNumber of WordsMacrae et al. (1994).
49 Stimulus Identification repeated presentation of degraded wordsdot density maskwhat’s the word?number of trials taken
52 Identify the WordNumber of PresentationsMacrae et al. (1994)
53 Stereotypes and Information Processing: Attentional Effects does stereotype application preserve valuable attentional resources?if so, when does this take place?
54 Person Impressions: With and Without Stereotypes Nigel Julian(doctor) (artist)caring creativehonest temperamentalreliable sensitiveresponsible unconventionalupstanding individualisticunlucky fearlessforgetful activepassive cordialclumsy progressiveenthusiastic generous
57 Knowledge about Indonesia? Macrae et al. (1994)
58 Efficiency and Automaticity stereotypical efficiency - conscious or unconscious?overt or covert allocation of attention?probe-reaction tasksturn off the sound
59 Person Impressions: With and Without Visible and Invisible Stereotypes Nigel Julian(doctor) (artist)caring creativehonest temperamentalreliable sensitiveresponsible unconventionalupstanding individualisticunlucky fearlessforgetful activepassive cordialclumsy progressiveenthusiastic generous3 conditions:category-supraliminalcategory-subliminalno categoryAuditory Probe Reaction Task
60 How Quickly Can You Turn Off the Sound? Macrae et al. (1994)
61 Stereotyping is Efficient Stereotypes(i) guide perception(ii) organize memories(iii) preserve attentionIs stereotyping Intentional?awarenessconsent
62 When are Stereotypes Most Likely to Be Deployed? Stereotypes save people the ‘trouble of thinking’ (Gilbert & Hixon, 1991)Stereotypes as judgmental heuristicsmotivation (e.g., involvement)speed (e.g., times pressures)attention (e.g., competing tasks)
65 Reaching Your Peak attention and stereotyping stereotypes as heuristicslaboratory manipulationsnaturalistic factorscircadian variationsmorning vs. evening people
66 Meeting LindaLinda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.Which of the following is more likely to be true?Linda is a bank teller.Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.
67 Conjunction Fallacythe erroneous belief that the joint probability of two events is greater than the probability of either of the constituent events separately.
68 Committing the Conjunction Fallacy Bodenhausen (1990)
69 Unresolved Issues: So What Exactly Gets Activated?
70 The Problem of Multiple Construal categorical competitionthe winner takes it allbut where do the losers go?consequences of category dominance
71 A Wee Digression - Is That My Beer? The Case of Competing Actions
72 Is That My (Car) Parking Space? The Case of Competing Memories
73 What Does It Mean? Linguistic Ambiguity Under cover of darkness, Brian slipped into the port.It can be fun playing with your hair.It happened at the bank.