Presentation on theme: "1(#total) CS5038 The Electronic Society Lecture 8: e-Government Lecture Outline Terminology - G2C, G2B, G2E Major areas of G2C activities Six stages to."— Presentation transcript:
1(#total) CS5038 The Electronic Society Lecture 8: e-Government Lecture Outline Terminology - G2C, G2B, G2E Major areas of G2C activities Six stages to implementation Implementation Problems Current state in UK E-Government - Increasing Inequality? Addressing the Democratic Deficit eParticipation eGovernment in the Developing World – Sri Lanka eGovernment in Singapore
2(#total) E-Government The use of electronic technology by a government to: Deliver its services better Improve its efficiency and effectiveness (just like eCommerce) Less staff needed to serve people quicker/cheaper Make governments more transparent to citizens and businesses Access to more of the information generated by government Government to citizens (G2C) Delivery of public services etc. (next slide) Government-to-employees (G2E) Activities and services between government units and their employees Government to Government (G2G) Intragovernmental activities Within a Government department and between Government bodies
3(#total) E-Government Government to business (G2B) E-Procurement – reverse auctions for MROs Group purchasing eFAST service (gsa.gov) conducts reverse auctions for aggregated orders E-Auctions government surpluses real estate seized goods Tax collection and management electronic filing of taxes is now available in over 100 countries
4(#total) E-Government Major areas of G2C activities: http://www.direct.gov.uk/Homepage/fs/en tourism and recreation research and education downloadable forms discovery of government services information about public policy advice about health and safety issues Pay tax & bills, receive documents and payments Nationwide Electronic benefit transfer (EBT) system in U.S. to deliver government benefits electronically deliver benefits to recipients bank accounts smart card system for those without bank accounts Makes government more transparent to citizens - access to information Greater opportunities to participate in democratic institutions Future: voting Useful in solving constituents problems Track problems using CRM-type software
6(#total) E-Government Stages Six stages to implementation (most governments are at stage 1) 1.Information publishing/dissemination – services available, contact details 2.Two-way transactions - Submit personal information, monetary transactions 3.Multipurpose portals – in Australia: www.sa.gov.auwww.sa.gov.au 4.Portal personalisation – must allow interfaces to be manipulated by user 5.Clustering of common services – people see clusters of services rather than agencies – reorganisation of government structure 6.Full integration and enterprise transformation – full service centre personalised to customer
7(#total) E-Government Implementation issues Transformation speed - usually slow: Resistance by employees Limited budget Legal environment G2B implementation Easier than G2C Can be outsourced (Hong Kong) Security and privacy issues Citizens data Especially healthcare Wireless applications E.g. wireless tourist service (Bergen)
8(#total) E-Government in UK Implementation issues Has reached the stage of two-way transactions with many sites Fast uptake of broadband in UK, but sparse use of online eGovernment services by citizens Few government employees have completed their first ECDL module 800 Government bodies spawned 3000 sites (2003) Need for sites offering related services in one place Each distinct site needs to be clear and focused E.g. housing, transport, education, immigration Public will learn to associate that site with its particular services Fragmented view of a citizen Many different departments hold records Often Different formats Implementation of cross agency infrastructure lacking
9(#total) E-Government - Increasing Inequality? Digital divide within UK: The haves – Broadband access from the home The have-nots – no Internet access Except in Public libraries perhaps May lack skills/education to use it effectively The elderly – may lack skills, and may not trust faceless interaction Those on the wrong side of the digital divide may be even more excluded from participation in democracy Important information on candidates at election time Submission to ePetitions – for lobbying parliament Solutions? Brazil offering half a million computers to citizens at low prices Credit schemes to assist citizens to buy
10(#total) Addressing the Democratic Deficit Voter turnout has dropped
11(#total) Addressing the Democratic Deficit (Many facts from essay by Robert Glasgow) Voter turnout has dropped in the United States: 70% of eligible population register to vote 50% vote in presidential elections Western Europe: average 77% turnout UK: 60% Especially low among young, unemployed, ethnic minorities Latin America: 54% Decline almost wholly concentrated among young people Membership in political parties: 1950s – 3.5M 2000s – 0.5M Public Trust in: Politicians 18% Doctors 91%
12(#total) Addressing the Democratic Deficit Participation in new social movements has increased Campaign groups ~1M demonstrated against Iraq war NGOs (e.g. Amnesty International) Increasingly on the Internet People disillusioned with traditional political system?
13(#total) Electronic Participation eRevolution? Top down benefits: Potential to make citizens More informed Streaming footage of debates Political information More engaged Webchats with elected representatives Online Voting (Estonia and Switzerland) More trusting Bottom up benefits: Potential for citizens to Contribute to policy making Online Questionnaires Discussion Forums Propose policies themselves Hold politicians to account Reach to young people 30% of 15-24yr olds have engaged in online political activity (10% offline)
14(#total) Electronic Participation Criticisms: Unrealistic Ignores existing political process De-legitimises existing institutions Power devolved from elected representatives and placed in hands of administrative side Politicians may be unable to fulfil campaign promises Ignores problems in web technologies Easy to set up forum Hard to analyse and collate results – unrealistic software Too open to deception/malicious use Some politicians view public participation as a threat
15(#total) Electronic Participation Big Conversation - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/3245620.stm 77-page document setting out challenges faced by Britain Website gives people a chance to air their views on policies Issues: Ban workplace smoking? Should rowdy city centre pubs contribute towards policing? Funding in further education and UK How important is the euro to locking in macroeconomic stability? Criticisms: Merely a publicity stunt Danger of pressure groups hijacking exercise
16(#total) Electronic Participation Big Conversation - Guardian Article: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/3245620.stm For the duration of its life, the Big Conversation website carried not a single comment from a single voter on: Iraq Terrorism Blair's relationship with Bush Working on this newspaper's Diary column at the time, I was contacted almost daily by people who had attempted to address one of the above issues in either an email or text message (price: 25p), but whose comments mysteriously never materialised on the site… As for those that made it through… "I am so proud to have voted Labour with my first ever vote a few years ago," read one comment. "Everywhere I look I see new cars, wealth, opportunities, investment and most favourable mortgage rates."
17(#total) eGovernment in the Developing World "About 99% of the benefits of having a PC come when you've provided reasonable health and literacy to the person who's going to sit down and use it". Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft
20(#total) eGovernment in the Developing World Case study in Sri Lanka (by Geeth de Mel): ICT Programme established in 2002 Aims: Improved delivery off social services Let people access information efficiently Improve inter organisation communication Reducing the vulnerabilities to natural disasters Example of existing problems: Tsunami of 2004 – still no accurate figures on affected people No mechanisms to support aid organisations in immediate aftermath Greater transparency Reduce corruption Increased social participation Empowerment off poor Further socio-economic development
21(#total) eGovernment in the Developing World Case study in Sri Lanka (by Geeth de Mel): Example Failure/Success Ministry of Education went online with exam results System poorly planned and crashed Took department longer than old manual system Success story from same department in 2004 Introduced new ICT curriculum Success due to Internet+television+radio (more accessible)
22(#total) eGovernment in the Developing World Case study in Sri Lanka (by Geeth de Mel): Difficulties Lack cash flow – encourage assistance of 3 rd parties Vested Interest by 3 rd parties can change project goals Corruption by high ranking officials Schools starting to get computer labs But not all villages have electricity IT literacy City: 35% Rural: <10% Computer ownership Urban: 10% Rural: 3% Estate: 0.3%
23(#total) eGovernment in Singapore http://www.ecitizen.gov.sg/ eCitizen can do passport application register as resident find jobs in government pay road tax donate to Charities Governments role changes from manager to service provider Citizens become like customers Dangers: Dependence on technology also brings vulnerability Hackers/terrorists easier than physical attacks on government privacy
24(#total) eGovernment Summary Terminology - G2C, G2B, G2E Major areas of G2C activities Six stages to implementation Implementation Problems Current state in UK E-Government - Increasing Inequality? Addressing the Democratic Deficit eParticipation eGovernment in the Developing World – Sri Lanka eGovernment in Singapore
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