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Presentation on theme: "IR THEORY IR 5001."— Presentation transcript:


2 Iconic images of world politics
battlefields, soldiers, guns, F-16s Veiled women, ‘burqa’ War on Terror Taliban’s oppression of women War on Terror, in part, a war on behalf of women and children

3 Social Imaginary Rescue of women and children ‘other’ Masculine national state (US) pastoral, paternal Against, Islamic ‘terrorist,’ feminized other War imagery of enemy Masculine self/feminized other Foreign Policy, War, Security, Power, Nation/State

4 GENDER / IR Gendering theory What is gender? biology?
social construct masculinity/femininity performativity language/discourse Inequality Hierarchy Power

5 What is theory? Ontology (in)visibility) what we see Epistemology – claims to know – how we know Methodology Axiology? (secularization of knowledge claims)

6 Gender and IR theory and practice
Objectivity Rationality Power – territorial, sovereign War/conflict Accumulation Citizen/humanity Male knowledge = human knowledge, universal

7 Distinctions Warrior/Beautiful Soul Public/Private State/Household
Citizens/Men Classical theory (Rousseau, Hegel, Marx) Paid work/unpaid labour Everyday

8 Patriarchy (rule of father)
Feminist theory Ungendering theory Feminist empiricism (including excluded groups) Standpoint feminism (difference, experience, values) Postmodern feminism Postcolonial feminism

9 Feminism First Wave 19th and early 20the centuries (suffragist movements, representation) Second Wave in the 1960s and 70s ‘personal as political’, economic and cultural inequalities Third Wave 1990s post-structural critique of enlightenment thought, autonomy, rationality, subjectivity

10 Liberal Feminists Assumption men and women are equal Women under-represented Participation in global politics Diplomats, military, business, Access to power Equal representation

11 Male – conflict, war, power Female – peace, cooperation, fairness
Standpoint Feminism Essentialism Male – conflict, war, power Female – peace, cooperation, fairness Values Post-Positivist Feminism Discourse, performance, unstable not fixed (no single cause of subordination)

12 Cynthia Enloe: Where are the women
Diplomats wives workers, army bases, sex workers Ann Tickner : Realism biased to male lived experience (Hans Morgenthau) Objectivity (culturally defined) National interest (many sided) Power as domination? Politics and morality not distinct Moral elements Political realm is not autonomous

13 Postmodern feminism Anti essentialist, discourse, language, web of meanings Freud, Lacan, Foucault, Irigaray Role of other (hospitality, accountability, empathy, cooperation, affinity) Gender one node of subjectification, capillary form of power

14 Postcolonial Feminist IR
Spivak, Mohanty, Bhaba, Said, ‘The subaltern cannot speak’ Normalization of white, western, middle class woman as site of feminist struggles Universalization of feminist theory from western location Ethnocentric Internal racism, classism, homophobia

15 Autonomy, subjectivity, modernity implicit starting point of liberal and radical feminism
Colonial modernity – governmentality Disciplining of women central to stabilization of colonial conduct of conduct Women-nation-anti-colonial struggle Double marginalization (state/nation/labor)

16 Gender and Power Territorial/sovereign Micro-politics
Capillary forms – subjectification Normalization Not autonomous but constituted in web of meanings (knowledge) Resistance

17 Gender and State Historical formation of the state
Women in state formation Revolutionary struggles Reproductive work of making citizens Welfare/family RBJ Walker’s critique – state sovereignty subsumes all difference (race, class, gender) real work of gender/IR to undo principle of state sovereignty

18 RBJ Walker :Women’s time and women’s place
Modernity/home Fusion of gender into unitary political identity (state) Difficulty of location a place from which to speak – all such places socially and historically constructed Politics of forgetting Modernity – valorizes the “merely domestic, reproductive nurturing, passive voice of women”

19 Women and ‘Development’
Modernization theory/difference Backwardness/lack/absence Third World Women Capitalism and Gender Productive/Unproductive labor Women as container of backwardness

20 Globalization and Gender
Global Commodity Chain (IPE- Gary Gerrefi) Global Care Chain ( Arlie Hochschild maids, nannies, nurses in global division of labor) Women and flexible accumulation Structures of Neo-colonial global capitalism

21 Gendered global division of labor
Service Peripheral and flexible work force Feminization of global work force Security-Human Security-Insecurity Studies ‘Globalization of mothering’

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