Presentation on theme: "The European Union and Enlargement IR1501 Issues in International Relations."— Presentation transcript:
The European Union and Enlargement IR1501 Issues in International Relations
Previous Enlargement Original members: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. 1973 Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom 1981 Greece 1986 Portugal and Spain 1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden 2004 10 new members
EU Enlargement: Questions Why did the EU expand? How did the EU expand? What were the political implications of expansion? How did EU change to prepare for 15 new members? What were the political, economic and social requirements of new member- states? What is the future for EU expansion?
Why did the EU expand? Changes the internal order of the EU; Allows for greater divisions in the EU; Forces painful economic and institutional adaptations required of the applicant country; Encourages anxiety over immigration in the existing member-states.
Why did the EU expand? Three views: 1.Rationalist approach 2.Ethical-political approach 3.Moral approach
Why did the EU expand? Three views and hypotheses: 1.Rationalist approach The EU would concentrate only on those states that offered the most gain 2.Ethical-political approach The EU would concentrate on those states that had an element of kinship 3.Moral approach The EU would concentrate on democratic states outside the community
Who supported enlargement? Drivers vs. Brakemen Drivers those bordering the CEECs (except for Italy and Greece) Brakemen Recent new states (ex. Spain) All others (except for Britain)
Who supported enlargement? Drivers: two groups Limited round focusing on Central Europe (Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Slovenia) The big bang enlargement
Who supported enlargement? Limited Enlargement Inclusive Enlargement Drivers Austria, Finland, Germany Britain, Denmark, Sweden Brakemen Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain
Who supported enlargement? Reasons for support Geographical proximity Interdependence Shared borders Economic gains
Member state shares of EU exports to Central and Eastern European countries and EU economic output
Who supported enlargement? Reasons for support Geographical proximity? Economic gain? Influence?
EU Enlargement Institutional Arrangements Copenhagen Criteria Acquis Communautaire Madrid European Council Agenda 2000
EU Enlargement Copenhagen Criteria stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities; the existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union; the ability to take on the obligations of membership including adherence to the aims of political, economic & monetary union.
EU Enlargement Acquis Communautaire Treaty of Maastricht 1993 The body of EU law that must be adopted into domestic law Acquis politigue Finalité politique
EU Enlargement Madrid European Council Administration Judicial Structures
EU Enlargement Agenda 2000 Amsterdam IGC 1997 and Luxembourg European Council 1998 Development of EU Challenges of Enlargement –Accession Process – Regular Reports Financial framework beyond 2000
EU Enlargement Agenda 2000 (regular reports) 1998-2003 1.Minorities 2.Adoption of Acquis 3.No delay for 6 4.Relied on other institutions and NGOs
EU Enlargement The logistics Should the Commission be re- weighted? Should voting change in the Council? How will the new states be represented in Parliament?
Political Conditions Democracy Transition Consolidation European Union and Democratisation
Political Conditions Political Conditionality This is achieved by specifying conditions or even preconditions for support, involving either promises of material aid or political opportunities. Democratic Conditionality
Financial Issues PHARE (Poland and Hungary: Aid for Economic Restructuring) Three aims: 1.Pre-accession Funds for adoption of the Acquis 2.Structural Funds 3.Aimed at Regions and regional institutions
Financial Issues PHARE Three phases: Mark I (1989-97) Mark II (1997-2000) Mark III (2000-)
Financial Issues Common Agriculture Policy Reforms at the Copenhagen summit in December 2002 Direct payments phased-in Lock-in strategy
Financial Issues The Economic and Monetary Union Euro is obligation for new states Although when and how is up to state No states ready yet (euobserver.com) Criteria: exchange rates, price stability, interest rates, deficits and the status of central banks
What is the future for EU expansion? Romania and Bulgaria (2007) Turkey (2010?) The Balkans (Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia, Albania)? Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia? North Africa?
On the surface, a lot has changednew hotels, restaurants shops etc in the scenic square mile of central Vilnius. But underneath it is still the same story. The four main levers of corrective power in a democratic country are all broken or bent: the media is discredited by pressure and intimidation; the criminal justice system is ineffective; political parties are about narrow economic interests and egos, not political ideas; and civil society is still an elite project of intellectuals, without any traction on the wider population.
Conclusion Why did the EU expand? How did the EU expand? What were the political implications of expansion? How did EU change to prepare for 15 new members? What were the political, economic and social requirements of new member- states? What is the future for EU expansion?