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The Cuban Missile Crisis. The United States and Latin America 1823 Monroe Doctrine Monroe Doctrine – The US wishing to prevent any foreign power becoming.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cuban Missile Crisis. The United States and Latin America 1823 Monroe Doctrine Monroe Doctrine – The US wishing to prevent any foreign power becoming."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cuban Missile Crisis

2 The United States and Latin America 1823 Monroe Doctrine Monroe Doctrine – The US wishing to prevent any foreign power becoming involved in Latin America – after the collapse of the Spanish Empire

3 Soviet Global Policy Soviet foreign policy changes with the death of Stalin & the Soviet Union becomes interested in the Third World – backing national liberation movements Cuba perfect example - We did not know what type of revolution had taken place

4 Cuban Missile Crisis January 1959 victory of the Cuba Revolution As Cuban-US relations deteriorate Havanas relationship with Moscow improves Cuba perfect example of what Moscow hoped to achieve in the Third World

5 Cuban Missile Crisis Propaganda gold dust – Cold War at its height & due to shared history/geography with US

6 Cuban Missile Crisis April Bay of Pigs Dec 1961 – Castro proclaims himself Marxist- Leninist

7 Deployment Summer 1962 missiles begin to be sent to Cuba Politburo divided Wanted to announce to world as fait accompli when at UN

8 13 Days in October 14 th – photographs of missiles on Cuba 22 nd – Kennedy decides to blockade Cuba 24 th – Soviet ships turn back 24 th – message from Khrushchev saying must find peaceful solution 25 th – U2 spy plane shot down 26 th – 2 nd message from Khrushchev 28 th – agreement reached

9 ExComm Reasons Bargaining chip for Jupiters in Turkey Diverting trap – real goal was Berlin Rebalance Cold War Close Nuclear imbalance – cost Cuban defence

10 Excomm Options 3 possible options: (1)Attack Cuba (2)Trade missiles for those in Turkey (3)Quarantine Much pressure on JFK from hawks after Bay of Pigs 11 voted for quarantine/6 for invasion

11 Soviet Aims Idea came to Khrushchev while going for a walk in Bulgaria! (1)Nuclear parity – been proven by 1961 (2)Weapons in Turkey – 10 mins to hit Soviet Union but 20 mins to hit US (3)Virgin Land campaign – poor results

12 Soviet Aims (4) Reduce military spending – more bang for your buck on rumble for your rouble (5) Tension with China (6) Problems with the West – U2 & Vienna/Berlin

13 Soviet Aims (7) Believe JFK weak (8) Khrushchevs character (9) Cuban defence - another Bay of Pigs but 40,000 Soviet troops already on Cuba

14 Solutions What other options open to JFK & Khrushchev? – pressures from within own governments Both fought in World War 2

15 Analysis Nye – 3 ideas 1)Domestic level 2)International level – distribution of power 3)Military technology – relative standing in international system

16 Analysis Graham Allison – Essence of Decision. Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis Model I – security and stability Model II – Organisations within governments have own reasons Model III – Individuals with own reasons but careful consideration of political situation in own country

17 Outcomes Perceived as great humiliation for Soviet Union

18 Outcomes Eyeball to eyeball, they blinked first – Dean Rusk, US Secretary of State Hotline between Washington and Moscow created Limited test Ban Treaty 1968 – Non Proliferation Treaty

19 Outcomes US promise not to invade Cuba – Monroe Doctrine dead 1963 Jupiter missiles in Turkey 1964 cost Khrushchev his job – overseas adventures

20 Conclusions Moscow takes decision to station nuclear weapons for a variety of different internal and foreign policy reasons – not just Cuban defence special relationship between Washington & Havana increases tension Nye - analysis Allison – Essence of Decision

21 Conclusions Perceived as humiliation for Moscow – cost Khrushchev his job Legacy for rest of Cold War Eyeball to eyeball, they blinked first.


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