Presentation on theme: "Developmental Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1Developmental Psychology Study of psychological changes that occur in human beings as they ageOriginally concerned with infants and childrenAlso includes adolescence and more recently, AgingStudies change across a broad range of topicsMotor skillsProblem solving abilitiesConceptual understandingAcquisition of languageMoral understandingIdentity formation
2Developmental Psychology Key questionsDo children think in a different way to adultsOr do they simply lack the experience of adults?Is development gradual - accumulation of knowledgeOr does it take big jumps - step from one way of thinking to another?Are children born with innate knowledgeOr do they figure things out through experience?Is development driven by the social contextOr by something inside each child?
3Developmental Psychology A number of areas can be studied in Developmental PsychologyExample: educational psychology, social psychologyWe focus on Cognitive Development (We are cognitivists)Focus on Piaget’s theoryWhy is it interesting for AI?As early as 1950 Turing proposedBuild a child AI, rather than an adultTeach it what it needs to knowWhy build a child?Easier than adult because he knows less
4Jean Piaget Born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on August 9, 1896 Took an early interest in nature, especially the collecting of shellsBecame interested in Biological Adaptation…Led to interest in human intelligence and knowledge surely the highest form of biological adaptation
5What Is It About? Genetic Epistemology Genetic doesn’t mean Genetic AlgorithmGenetic means studying the originWhere it comes fromEpistemology means “theory of knowledge”So Genetic Epistemology isA theory of where knowledge comes from
6Highest form of biological adaptation What Is It About?Genetic EpistemologyHighest form of biological adaptation
7Piaget’s Observations The first thing Piaget noticed:Children’s way of thinking is really different to adultsI run through Piaget’s stagesObservations of his own children
8Q A Why does a helium balloon go up? Because there’s a gas inside, when there’s a lot of gas it’s heavy, it’s very strong and then it flies.
9Q Q Q Why does a large boat float? Why does a small pebble sink to the bottom?But a small chip of wood floats…QWhy does a large piece of wood float?
10Children’s way of thinking is really different to adults Piaget’s TheoryPiaget noticed:Children’s way of thinking is really different to adultsBut he also noticed something in commonWhen they have a contradiction…Gradually they change their world modelCome up with a new way to explain what they seeThey are creative in conjecturing new modelsJust like a scientist discovering laws of physicsKey point: Children CONSTRUCT their own model of the world.Intelligence is about having a function that canTake on board new dataConstruct a theory of the world which fits the dataI run through Piaget’s stagesObservations of his own children
11“Just as the main functions of the living being are identical in all organisms but correspond to organs which are very different in different groups, so also between the child and the adult a continuous creation of varied structures may be observed although the main functions of thought remain constant.”Piaget
12Piaget’s Theory – How It Works Cognitive structuresContinuous creationCognitive functionsOrganise + AdaptInvariant – nucleus in infantConstructivism“main functions of living being identical in all organisms but organs different also between child adult varied structures main functions of thought constant.”
13Piaget’s Observations The progress of developmentVariable ages + much overlap old habits reappearShow how little is known initiallyGain insight into functions usedI run through Piaget’s stagesObservations of his own children
14In the beginning: Reflex ( 0 1 months ) Sucking and grasping reflexesRespond to stimuliFor play/practiseReflex preserves itself by repeatingSchema: S-R-SStimulus-Response-StimulusSuck whenever something touches mouthSearch - Inbuilt knowledge turn to left – expt on hearing – 2 minutesAccom to thumbsuck, to grabSensations change in response to actions, but no idea of independent existence of world
15In the beginning: Reflex ( 0 1 months ) Sucking and grasping reflexesRespond to stimuliFor play/practiseReflex preserves itself by repeatingDevelopmentSearch improvesAccommodates to new objectsDiscerns stimuli for special modesSign recognition improvesSuck whenever something touches mouthSearch - Inbuilt knowledge turn to left – expt on hearing – 2 minutesAccom to thumbsuck, to grabSensations change in response to actions, but no idea of independent existence of world
16Circular Reactions ( 1 4 months ) Thumb suckingGrasping:1. Reflex, with interest2. Grab object and suck hand3. Carry object to mouth4. Grab object when in viewSuddenly realise hand and vision are in the same world5. Intentional motion of handThrowing hands touches mouth3. (but really same scheme as thumb sucking because sucks on hand or obj at start)when hand passes by chance in view holds it therenow accoms hand to glance and studies objects4. first time hand grasps while in view – surprise, does more grasping in viewSuddenly realise hand and vision are in the same worldDoesn’t seem to know innately that these are in the same worldsimultaneous view of hand and obj starts grab, not otherwise5.what can be seen is grasped, what can be grasped is looked forThis is Knowledge about the worldNot maturational happens at quite different rates depending on what he did with them, or what they discovered by chance
17Repeating Discoveries ( 4 8 months ) Repeat interesting spectacleInterrupted grabbingReconstruct whole from visible partBut does not retrieve if completely hiddenRemove obstacles to perceptionObjects have no other sideImage at disposal of actionBridge: actions dissociated from end resultShakes body to shake dolls; pulls string to shake rattleDoesn’t understand relation – magic is triedthinks his own actions are the only possible causes - egocentricBut he does learn actions that do work and these are capturing knowledge about the world because he has an expectation that a certain action should produce a certain resultDevelops actions used to make interesting things lastmouthing,looking,shaking,banging,grasping applied indiscrim. to any objectNew object not novel, just treated like any other object to apply actions toit’s intelligent because he rediscovers the movements needed/but it’s not intelligent because the solution is discovered before the desire to obtain it/real intelligence works the other wayInterrupt grab: can play box;turn look; back to box->knowledge about the world -> objects are permanentglobal permanence tied to action, obj not permanent in a different contextReconstruct: recognises object by a bit of itraises cloth if beak sticks out cries if sees bit of bottle, stops if sees nonewell able to turn the bottle even if he sees a teeny bit of nipple (almost 180degree turn), but if he sees none he makes no attempt, even after extensive presentation of bottle in orientations he has understood nothing Remove: doesn’t get relation of screen to obj; get relation of screen to faceshakes and duck falls down, but hid in fold; shakes and looks up top againObj goes a to b; Expects it to reappear at asearches at exact point of departure, thinks obj is extension of movement, so if not found in exact extension of accomodation, no hope to findimage at disposal of action, swings box;drops;looks in hand;swings empty hand;looks in handbut still progress from 1 where obj was not dist from results of reflex actionstage3 still like stage1 because centred on child, next stage will be centred on objectsExploring objects
18Intelligent Coordination ( 8 12 months ) Explore object propertiesChain actions to achieve goalIntention; find means; apply actionsObjects have other sideSearch for vanished objectsA not B errorFailure to modify actionBridge: dropping objectshere he (accidentally at first) learns to push away a blocking objectlifts a cushion to get thing – derived from obstacle removingunlike earlier stage where he just repeated pulling string to shake rattle for example, he now knows how means are connected to the goal and can exactly adjust means to goalActions applied to new things even empty spaceunderstand the objectinterested in change in shape resulting from different head posnscapable of turning bottle, also leans sideways to see teatOpinion that exists, generally that objects have other sidesactive search for vanished objects – opinion that it must be somewhere does a not b/often even if searches b if it’s too far in he searches a againhe drops the swan while she’s watching, she watches it fall, sees it go out of view and then goes back and searches BDoesn’t get that it can’t be there if it went someplace elseBehaviour Repeats again and againToddler drops ball – when problem gets difficult more primitive behaviours reappearSame type of thing with peopleJ downstairs+up in room godfather left in automobile+his roomLike we can experience in a dream world when our conscious mind is absentRules that say that a person can’t be in two places are not in forcefailures of stage 4: unable to modify action when outcome not achieved, instead starts afresh with new action/ can’t gradually approximate a demo schemeBridge: dropping, experimenting with the trajectory
19Experimentation ( 12 18 months ) Adjust actions using feedbackStickSupportReally trying to understand the worldSucceeds on A not BFails covert displacementsLimited construction of realityAdjust: Tries to pull wooden rooster toy through barsLearns the stick here with gropingLearns supportUnderstand – not just success - repetition,Experiment not just to repeat unexpected result but to create a new oneno limit to probs that can be solved because will experiment with new schemafor first time child initiates novelty(some kind of creativity here)Fails: put in open box, dump out under clothdoesn’t know gravity (OI270) puts cushion up, throws things down, doesn’t know what to expect when pushing thing off edgeexperimentation is limited to objects as they appear, they are not elaborated mentallymental constructions transforming the object as it appears to be into the object as it ispresses ring to stick to put it on: optical contact, does not elaborate torus of ring, does not anticipate impenetrability of solid objectsKnows they’re solid to his hand, but doesn’t know they’re solid to each otherConstruction of Reality – saw some at stage 4 with objects having other sideKids four wheel car is example of opinion/reality construction, made their own abstraction of what they think is importantMountain
20Representation ( 18 24 months ) Planning becomes covertCombining action sequencesExperimentationSucceeds in covert displacementsImitation to representDifficulty old magic forms reappearPlanning : have built a world modelToy through barsMoves paint from door’s pathMakes detour around sofa to get ballSucceeds: if very difficult, searches hard, assumes permanence of object where before he might give up, willing to accept it’s gonea lot of stage 6 stuff, looks intelligent, but he really knew all he needed alreadyJump to representation stage doesn’t mean anything new learnt, it’s a development in the way the knowledge learned is usedImitation:mouthDifficulty:use force to put ring in box, blink eyes to turn light
21Q A Preoperational (2-7) Play and Imitation Fails seriation tasks Does not know conservationLanguage - preconceptsTransduction instead of induction/deductionQPiaget has written a lot about all that happens after infancy, but I’ll just skim through very quicklypreconcepts:does not assign word to one class of objects but to a number of sim actions/experiencesLanguage: fan is north windTransductionStone sinks because it’s strong and can get to the bottomWood stays up because it’s strong so it can floatNo need for consistencyPreconcepts – you think they’re the same but they’re notWhy does a helium balloon go up?ABecause there’s a gas inside, when there’s a lot of gas it’s heavy, it’s very strong and then it flies.
22Concrete Operational (7-11) Formal Operational (11+) Knows conservationCan manipulate concrete objects mentallyCannot manipulate abstract relationsEdith fairer Lily; Edith darker SusanCannot accept assumptionsCan: seriationCannot: edith fairer lily, edith darker susanAbstract: similar to earlier stage order concrete objectsCould use the same mental machinery, many people represent the problem to themselves spatiallyHere moving around the relation as though it were a physical objectable to accept assumption for sake of argument;so he’s now able to test a hypothesis without believing ithold in hypothetical mental space, aware it’s hypoThis building of the mental space for hypotheses seems similar to the mental space used to plan building with concrete objectsSet aside a space in mind for objects that are in a different layout to real worldFormal Operational (11+)Can manipulate abstract relationsCan entertain non-concrete hypotheses
23General Themes Incremental construction Repeating work on a new plane Implicit representation of conceptsOnly pay attention to what makes senseDevelopment driven by conflictImplicit - Concepts are spread in many special case rules, like gravity, like vyg words, we think they’re the same, might be a long time before they’re untangled, must copy this, if we jump straight missing out, definitely how we solve a new problem, little special case hypotheses firstMore novelty as gets older – more patterns have been found relative to which things make senseOnly pay attention to what makes sense, or what can be understood in terms of things that make senseAs a relation among things that already make senseParadoxicalBut still true in adultThe more you know – the more things are interestingLearn chinese, every time see pay attention where before you would have ignored itRepresentation should be implicit in many special case hypothesesa constant theme in piaget’s work is repeating same work on new planeSpecial case stuff still continuing – Subbotsky 40% adults thought experimenter could bring about a material change in the object in the box with his mental powers
24“Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself.” Piaget
25Commonsense is Not Intelligence Not sufficientStructure not functionNot necessaryFunction can build structureI said that in Piaget’s Structure/Function division most AI work is on the structures and not much on the functionsCommonsense ok for short term – engineer system to do a specific taskQuickest way – but system will only do that specific task and never go beyond itCommonsense doesn’t find new patterns, it is collections of patterns already foundNot necessary – build program to do task, if you go on to make it intelligent you must give capability to build own modelsAnd if that’s achieved then there was no point in all the commonsenseFor long term building artificial intelligence it’s a waste of time
26Comparison with Darwin Darwin looked at all the various forms of life and askedwhere did they come from?He saw a common mechanism…which could have given rise to all the varieties of life we see today.Many complex forms of life…could evolve out of very simple forms of lifeby a relatively simple mechanismPiaget looked at all the various forms of mental activityin humans of all agessaw a common mechanism which could have given rise to them allComplexities of adult human mind…could grow out simple forms in infant’s minda relatively simple set of innate structures and functions.Darwin was concerned with the origin of speciesPiaget was concerned with the origin of mind
27Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory Some people contradict Piaget’s theoryBut beware! They lie!Considerable controversy in the fieldResults to corroborate Piaget’s theoryAnd results to contradict his theoryAnd results to contradict the contradictionsAnd …Psychology has a lot of conflicting resultsA science in its infancy, just over 100 years old(Compare Physics)
28Course Overview Looking at the Science What is AI?What are the Major Challenges?What are the Main Techniques?Where are we failing, and why?Step back and look at the ScienceStep back and look at the History of AIWhat are the Major Schools of Thought?What of the Future?Looking at the ScienceEngineering vs. ScienceIntroduction to Cognitive ScienceCognitive Psychology 1Cognitive Psychology 2Cognitive DevelopmentLinguisticsNeurosciencePhilosophyWhat are we trying to doHow do we do itA lot of people would start with the history – but it’s a bit meaningless at first