Presentation on theme: "Modernity and Social Theory SO3523"— Presentation transcript:
1Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Phenomenology, Social Constructionism & Modernity
2Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Phenomenology & Social ConstructionismMajor Figures:Edmund HusserlMaurice Merleau-PontyAlfred SchutzPeter Berger & Thomas LuckmanCognitivist ‘Revolution’
3Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Reality only exists in the ongoing stream of sensory experience to which we allocate to discrete categories.‘Stream of Consciousness’‘Intentionality’‘Bracketing’‘The Natural Attitude’Edmund Husserl
4Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Challenged the privileging of the mind with respect to conscious experienceEmbodied ConsciousnessBody/SubjectMaurice Merleau-Ponty ( )
5Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Phenomenal SociologyAlfred Schutz(1899 – 1959)
6Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 First Order Categories (Common Sense) – The recurrent elements in the stream of consciousnessTypifications: Ideal Typical ConceptsRecipes & Formulas: Taken for granted procedures for accomplishing everyday tasks.
7Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Schutz’s interaction order:‘Consociates’: Share the same time and space‘Contemporaries’: Share the same time‘Predecessors’ and ‘Successors’: ‘Ideal Types’ with whom we engage through letters and reportsLebenswelt: The LifeworldSecond Order Categories: Sociology’s task is to develop second order concepts that allow to explore and understand the first order concepts that people in society employ, including their origins and effects.
8Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 ‘The Social Construction of Reality’Berger & Luckmann (1966)Human Nature, Plasticity & ‘Homo Socius’Realissimum and zones of closeness and remotenessThe Natural Attitude and Shared Common Sense Knowledge (objectifications)Social interaction
9Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Institutionalization:Externalization: ActionObjectification: Viewing the products of action as being objectively ‘real’ (reification?)Internalization: Subjective assimilation of the ‘taken for granted’ reality
10Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Objective Reality: The institutionalized typifications that are shared by social actors over timeSubjective Reality: The internalised social realityPrimary Socialization: Becoming a member of Society – version of Paramount reality ‘filtered’ through parents and others.Secondary Socialization: Induction into ‘new’ sectors of the objective social world.
11Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 The Thomas Theorem“if men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences” (Thomas & Thomas 1928:572).WI Thomas( )
12Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 ‘The Homeless Mind’: Berger, Berger & Kellner (1973)TechnologyBureaucracyModern ConsciousnessModernization & Resistance
13Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Technological Consciousness:Componentiality (reality experienced as atomistic units)Interdependence (units form interdependent sequences)Implicit Abstraction (everything can be understood with reference to abstract frameworks - even humans)Segregation (of institutions, home & work etc.)Emotional Management (emotion permitted within some spheres and excluded from others)Anonymous Social Relations & ‘Human Engineering’ (individuals defined as functionaries)
14Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Bureaucracy & ConsciousnessCompetence & Coverage (very detailed and restricted areas of expertise – but everything can be dealt with somewhere in the all-encompassing bureaucracy)Orderliness (overarching cognitive style of bureaucrat – everything can be organized and order imposed)Assumption of PredictabilityImpression Management (stylised modes of interaction)
15Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Modern Consciousness & The Pluralization of Lifeworlds:Individuation & Reflexivity (peculiarly separated from others due to the multiplicity of ‘life plan’ options and experiences)Homelessness (an absence of firm roots and belonging)Modernity & Its Discontents (secularization, meaninglessness, contradiction, discrepancy, abstraction, alienation)Collisions of Consciousness (cultural clashes)Counter-Culture (nature, feeling, simplification, realissimum, total life experiences, authenticity, spontaneity)Limitations of Resistance