Presentation on theme: "Modernity and Social Theory SO3523"— Presentation transcript:
1 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Phenomenology, Social Constructionism & Modernity
2 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Phenomenology & Social ConstructionismMajor Figures:Edmund HusserlMaurice Merleau-PontyAlfred SchutzPeter Berger & Thomas LuckmanCognitivist ‘Revolution’
3 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Reality only exists in the ongoing stream of sensory experience to which we allocate to discrete categories.‘Stream of Consciousness’‘Intentionality’‘Bracketing’‘The Natural Attitude’Edmund Husserl
4 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Challenged the privileging of the mind with respect to conscious experienceEmbodied ConsciousnessBody/SubjectMaurice Merleau-Ponty ( )
5 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Phenomenal SociologyAlfred Schutz(1899 – 1959)
6 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 First Order Categories (Common Sense) – The recurrent elements in the stream of consciousnessTypifications: Ideal Typical ConceptsRecipes & Formulas: Taken for granted procedures for accomplishing everyday tasks.
7 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Schutz’s interaction order:‘Consociates’: Share the same time and space‘Contemporaries’: Share the same time‘Predecessors’ and ‘Successors’: ‘Ideal Types’ with whom we engage through letters and reportsLebenswelt: The LifeworldSecond Order Categories: Sociology’s task is to develop second order concepts that allow to explore and understand the first order concepts that people in society employ, including their origins and effects.
8 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 ‘The Social Construction of Reality’Berger & Luckmann (1966)Human Nature, Plasticity & ‘Homo Socius’Realissimum and zones of closeness and remotenessThe Natural Attitude and Shared Common Sense Knowledge (objectifications)Social interaction
9 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Institutionalization:Externalization: ActionObjectification: Viewing the products of action as being objectively ‘real’ (reification?)Internalization: Subjective assimilation of the ‘taken for granted’ reality
10 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Objective Reality: The institutionalized typifications that are shared by social actors over timeSubjective Reality: The internalised social realityPrimary Socialization: Becoming a member of Society – version of Paramount reality ‘filtered’ through parents and others.Secondary Socialization: Induction into ‘new’ sectors of the objective social world.
11 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 The Thomas Theorem“if men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences” (Thomas & Thomas 1928:572).WI Thomas( )
12 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 ‘The Homeless Mind’: Berger, Berger & Kellner (1973)TechnologyBureaucracyModern ConsciousnessModernization & Resistance
13 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Technological Consciousness:Componentiality (reality experienced as atomistic units)Interdependence (units form interdependent sequences)Implicit Abstraction (everything can be understood with reference to abstract frameworks - even humans)Segregation (of institutions, home & work etc.)Emotional Management (emotion permitted within some spheres and excluded from others)Anonymous Social Relations & ‘Human Engineering’ (individuals defined as functionaries)
14 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Bureaucracy & ConsciousnessCompetence & Coverage (very detailed and restricted areas of expertise – but everything can be dealt with somewhere in the all-encompassing bureaucracy)Orderliness (overarching cognitive style of bureaucrat – everything can be organized and order imposed)Assumption of PredictabilityImpression Management (stylised modes of interaction)
15 Modernity and Social Theory SO3523 Modern Consciousness & The Pluralization of Lifeworlds:Individuation & Reflexivity (peculiarly separated from others due to the multiplicity of ‘life plan’ options and experiences)Homelessness (an absence of firm roots and belonging)Modernity & Its Discontents (secularization, meaninglessness, contradiction, discrepancy, abstraction, alienation)Collisions of Consciousness (cultural clashes)Counter-Culture (nature, feeling, simplification, realissimum, total life experiences, authenticity, spontaneity)Limitations of Resistance