Presentation on theme: "Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley and China. All early civilizations arose near rivers. In the Middle East, the Sumerians settled the land between."— Presentation transcript:
All early civilizations arose near rivers. In the Middle East, the Sumerians settled the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. In Africa the Egyptians established cities beside the Nile. In South Asia an early Indian people built a civilization near the Indus River. In East Asia, the Chinese farmed near the Huang He River.
Framers built canals to bring water to the fields for farming. They also took fish from the rivers. Rivers also gave them a way to carry surplus goods to be traded elsewhere. The civilizations had important differences. Each region grew different crops and distinct cultures.
Egyptians had an advantage over the Sumerians because the Nile area was less swampy. Therefore, the villages along the Nile had more contact and less conflict than the isolated Sumerian communities. The Indus Valley was hot and dry. Floods of the Indus River brought water and rich soil to the region.
The floods did not occur regularly every fall but came unexpectedly. Sometimes it did not come for long periods. Sometimes it was so strong that it destroyed all the crops. The people of the Indus had to dig irrigation ditches and build flood barriers.
King represented the god. He over saw the maintenance of the temple and the irrigation system and commanded the army. The King did have to answer in some ways to the priests. 300 laws gave the government a big role in punishments
Gave government control over daily affairs. Set punishments for dishonest business practices and nonpayment of debts. Laws also increased the legal rights of women and slaves. Punishments were harsher for people of the lower rank than the nobility. Kings, priests, nobility, commoners, criminals, debtors, prisoners of war, slaves. Woman were would care for the family.
The Pharaoh was the god. Upper class The Pharaoh’s main duty was to care for the people. They kept powerful armies to protect Egypt from enemies. Priests, nobles and governors also helped the pharaoh. They collected and decided how money would be spent. Slaves were the lowest. Woman enjoyed more rights.
No clear evidence of how the Indus were governed. Nonetheless scholars believe this civilization developed under some strong organizing influence such as councils of businessman, craftsmen and farmers. They built beautifully planned cities and efficient irrigation system. Powerful merchants may have been the elite. Not clear how woman were treated.
They had dynasties. King ruled the dynasty. Kings and nobles lived in palaces. Skilled workers such as craftsmen were above the peasants and slaves who worked the land. Women had few legal rights.