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Geography and the National Curriculum Review

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Presentation on theme: "Geography and the National Curriculum Review"— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography and the National Curriculum Review
David Lambert GA chief executive Geography and the National Curriculum Review

2 Geography and the NCR What is significant about this debate?
What the GA has been doing: a. The manifesto (2009) b. The geography curriculum consultation (2011) c. The GA’s national curriculum proposals (2012) Grasping the future

3 What kind of (curriculum) Future do we want?
F1 subject delivery – of knowledge for its own sake; traditional subjects: under-socialised knowledge F2 skills and ‘learning to learn’ – knowledge is constructed: over-socialised knowledge; subject divisions are artificial. Experiential. F3 subjects are not given (as in F1), but not arbitrary either (as in F2) led by ‘... the epistemic rules of specialist communities’ to provide ways to understand the world objectively, and take pupils beyond their everyday experience. (Michael Young 2008; 2011)

4 F1 Enduring images of teachers of classrooms of subjects
Black and white images of school master and classroom removed for copyright reasons

5 F2 OECD (on ‘21st century skills’) QCA 2004 (on curriculum futures)
“ ... for jobs that have not yet been created, using technologies that have not yet been invented to solve problems that cannot be foreseen” QCA 2004 (on curriculum futures) “The UK has moved from a manufacturing economy to a service and knowledge-based economy. In an increasingly technological world, jobs migrate ... In an uncertain future (we need people who are) flexible and equipped to learn and adapt ...”

6 F3? A Different View

7 Manifesto Overview 1. Geography: a curriculum resource par excellence
2. Thinking geographically 3. Living geography 4. Geography and young people 5. Investigating and exploring geography 6. Geography and the ‘real world’ 7. ‘Curriculum making’ with geography

8 Curriculum Making How does this take the learner beyond what they already know? Learning Activity Student experiences, motivations, learning Teachers’ pedagogic choices and performance Geography: the subject discipline Underpinned by Key Concepts Thinking Geographically

9 The learning “fetish” Where ‘learning’ is regarded as:
A good thing in itself - and assumed to be value free in this sense. (It is not. Learning can be trivial, dangerous or wrong) An essentially scientific or technical process –thus, with correct technique, learning can be ‘accelerated’, as if this were an end in itself. (But understanding aspects of science, history or art can be counter-intuitive, and require sustained, sometimes painstaking effort) Paramount. Teaching is subservient to, and led by, the learning. We become embarrassed by teaching, and instead talk only about ‘facilitating’ learning. (A profession that abrogates responsibility in this way may be one that has lost confidence in itself)

10 “Bringing Knowledge Back In”
Schools are special places (they are not ‘everyday places’) Inducting young people into ‘powerful knowledge’ Clear distinction between curriculum and pedagogy (Michael Young 2008)

11 White Paper: The Importance of Teaching ‘core knowledge’
‘The National Curriculum should set out clearly the core knowledge and understanding that all children should be expected to acquire in the course of their schooling. (para 4.7)

12 The GA’s Geography Curriculum Consultation
Clear vision of geography’s contribution and purpose - the foundational ideas of geography and education - ‘capabilities’ Rationale for handling geographical knowledge - Kn1: geographical context; ‘core knowledge’ - Kn2: conceptual content knowledge - Kn3: ‘procedural’ knowledge and applied practical skills

13 Thinking Geographically
“Vocabulary” This is a metaphor for geographical ‘core knowledge’ and locational context “Grammar” This is a metaphor for conceptual and procedural knowledge Peter Jackson (2005) .

14 Thinking Geographically and ‘Capability’
Through geography, pupils’ ‘capabilities’ are enhanced through: Acquisition and development of ‘world knowledge’ (this may be equated with enabling ‘core knowledge’) Understanding inter-relationships (plus place and spatial relations, scale and connection and proximity and distance ) Propensity to think, through ‘decision making’ and other applied pedagogic activities, about how places, societies and environments are made, and how they change .

15 Geography 5-16: the overarching framework
PLACE (places, territories and regions) Local place knowledge in community and regional context Britain/UK knowledge, in European context Broad world knowledge including continents, oceans, countries, significant Earth features such as wind patterns, tectonic structures In-depth studies of specific places or regions different from their own, focussing on people-environment interactions Study of places of great significance in and for the world today (including at least China, USA, Europe) In-depth study of places that are scenes of conflict at different scales (eg a local place, Afghanistan) Exemplar studies of places where physical extremes or hazards dominate SPACE (patterns and links) Examples of economic patterns of production, distribution and change in industry, leisure, agriculture Understanding of resource distributions and food, water and energy security on regional, national and international scale Reasons for and processes behind the location and changing distributions of population Understanding of flows and movements of people, goods and ideas, with examples on a regional, national and global scale Understanding of spatial systems, such as climate, through the distribution of energy through ocean currents and wind patterns ENVIRONMENT (physical and human interaction) Studies of fragile landscapes such as deserts, polar regions, mountains and reefs Understanding different approaches to managing and living with changing physical and human environments Processes involved in distribution and patterns of major physical features, including natural regions and ecosystems Understand the Earth’s oceans and their significance Understand landscapes as distinctive collections of landforms, soils and Earth surface processes Investigating the links between social, economic and environmental quality Understanding renewable and non renewable resources from the Earth and its atmosphere GEOG ENQUIRY (procedures and skills) Maps – what they show us, how to use them and how to construct them How to use and apply geographic information systems (GIS) How to use a wide variety of sources, databases, and visualisation technologies, to analyse and evaluate How to investigate an environmental issue at first-hand or using primary sources First hand investigation via fieldwork: photography, GPS, sketching, interviewing, meeting people etc Writing descriptively and analytically about places, spaces and environments; constructing and challenging arguments

16 Geography 5-16: the programme structure
Key stages: Statement of goals and purpose for each Key Stage Key stages to be expressed through 4-6 core topics Topics to be carefully ‘choreographed’ Progressive context ‘coverage’ and exposure Consistent with the overarching conceptual framework: Place, Space and Environment Each topic captured by key ‘organising questions’ Explicit about what should be taught Open about how the teaching should be organised: themes, issues, regions or a mix of these

17 Key stage statement Example
KS2(b) Pupils are taught to use maps of the school and the community (including OS maps), and frequently use atlases and globes. They investigate contrasting localities, identifying links between places, particularly through trade and the production and consumption of energy. They should explore two to three different countries, examining their contrasting cultures and landscapes, in the wider continental settings of Europe and the Americas. They explore patterns and regularities in economic activity, linking production and consumption of manufactured goods. They are taught about the importance of water in physically shaping the land, especially coasts. Throughout KS2 pupils build up knowledge of some of the key features of the earth’s surface and some significant places. In a global context they may study the significance of seas and the oceans: for example, in regulating climate.

18 Topic specification 1. Broad description of the topic:
Single paragraph, written with technical precision Content rigour (avoiding generic statements) Identifying the core of essential knowledge (not everything that has to be ‘covered’) Clear about the ‘point’ of teaching the topic 2. Specific assessment indicators: Of topic specific knowledge and understanding To encourage progressive development in ‘thinking geographically’

19 Example KS1 Weather Assessment
Pupils will be able to show evidence of: Foundational knowledge Identify and use terms to name and describe elements of the weather Understanding Explain a weather pattern in terms of place, local conditions and/or time of year Procedures and skills Keep a weather diary to show observations of change Record and use a weather map using symbols Thinking Geographically Place-space: children are beginning to show an understanding of the distinctiveness of places and spatial patterns of phenomena Programme This topic exposes children to an aspect of the physical environment which can be touched, seen, felt and measured. Pupils should build a vocabulary to describe weather observations. The topic shows how the weather has impact and that human beings respond. Pupils should understand that the weather happens in the atmosphere and that it changes from day to day and from place to place. They should begin to understand causes for this and for seasonal variations, and, using maps and simple symbols, record, talk and write about the changing weather and its impact.

20 Example KS3 Catastrophic natural events Programme
Through exposure to a variety of examples, pupils develop understanding of a range of catastrophic natural events: including earthquakes and volcanoes; extreme weather events such as hurricanes, and both river and coastal inundation. Studies should focus on the physical mechanisms of the events themselves but also on broader explanations which include human actions (such as deforestation) and the continued human occupation of hazardous locations. The topic teaches about human response to perceived risk, and the idea of ‘preparedness’ for natural hazards. Assessment (eg earthquakes and volcanoes)  Pupils will show evidence of: Foundational knowledge The global distribution of volcanoes and plate boundaries Understanding -explain the relationship between volcanic activity and plate boundaries - describe the impact of volcanic eruptions on human activities, and explain how people can respond to the hazard Procedures and skills They can use atlas and graphic skills to locate, describe and explain tectonic distributions Thinking Geographically Scale and connection: Pupils understand that global processes, whether tectonic or climatic, can result in localised events ... which may themselves have widespread, even global consequences

21 The sequence of topics 5-16yrs
KS1 (5-7yrs) Topic Chief Organising Question Physical: weather What is the weather like & why does it change? Countries: in UK What is it like to live here? Environment: farming Where is food produced? World: Australasia Where is Australia and what is it like?

22 The sequence of topics 5-16yrs
KS2a (7-9 yrs) Topic Chief Organising Question Physical: rivers How do rivers affect the landscape & our lives? Countries: in Africa Where is Africa & how are we connected? Environment: leisure Where do people go for leisure and holidays? World: climate/biomes Where are deserts, rainforests and polar regions?

23 The sequence of topics 5-16yrs
KS2b (9-11 yrs) Topic Chief Organising Question Physical: coasts Why do coasts change so quickly? Europe & the Americas What are the links between them? Environment: Energy Why do we need energy and where do we get it? World: trade Where are the thing we consume produced and how do they get here?

24 The sequence of topics 5-16yrs
KS3 (11-13 yrs) Topic Chief Organising Question Physical: Ice How has ice shaped the land in the N hemisphere? Countries: Asia Is this the Asian century? Environment: water What water do we need and where do we get it? World: natural events What causes catastrophic natural events and how do people respond? Development Who gets what where and why, and why care? UK Space How are settlements, landscapes and life changing in the UK today?

25 The sequence of topics 5-16yrs
KS4 (13-16 yrs) Topic Chief Organising Question Climate and climate change What explains climate variation over space and time? Population change What are the causes and consequences of population change? Geomorphology How is the land shaped and over what timescale Urbanisation What are the consequences of an ‘urban planet’? Globalisation How does living in a globalised world affect localities and places? Sustainable development In what ways are social, economic and environmental change related?

26 Role development - for the GA
Advice: on the statutory curriculum Interpretation: curriculum making Standards setting: communicating ‘quality’ Exemplars: through the Geography Quality Mark, Making Geography Happen etc Materials: professional and classroom publications (including tests)

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