Presentation on theme: "Geography and the National Curriculum Review"— Presentation transcript:
1Geography and the National Curriculum Review David LambertGA chief executiveGeography and the National Curriculum Review
2Geography and the NCR What is significant about this debate? What the GA has been doing:a. The manifesto (2009)b. The geography curriculum consultation (2011)c. The GA’s national curriculum proposals (2012)Grasping the future
3What kind of (curriculum) Future do we want? F1 subject delivery – of knowledge for its own sake; traditional subjects: under-socialised knowledgeF2 skills and ‘learning to learn’ – knowledge is constructed: over-socialised knowledge; subject divisions are artificial. Experiential.F3 subjects are not given (as in F1), but not arbitrary either (as in F2)led by ‘... the epistemic rules of specialist communities’ to provide ways to understand the world objectively, and take pupils beyond their everyday experience.(Michael Young 2008; 2011)
4F1 Enduring images of teachers of classrooms of subjects Black and white images of school master and classroom removed for copyright reasons
5F2 OECD (on ‘21st century skills’) QCA 2004 (on curriculum futures) “ ... for jobs that have not yet been created, using technologies that have not yet been invented to solve problems that cannot be foreseen”QCA 2004 (on curriculum futures)“The UK has moved from a manufacturing economy to a service and knowledge-based economy. In an increasingly technological world, jobs migrate ... In an uncertain future (we need people who are) flexible and equipped to learn and adapt ...”
7Manifesto Overview 1. Geography: a curriculum resource par excellence 2. Thinking geographically3. Living geography4. Geography and young people5. Investigating and exploring geography6. Geography and the ‘real world’7. ‘Curriculum making’ with geography
8Curriculum MakingHow does this take the learner beyond what they already know?Learning ActivityStudent experiences, motivations, learningTeachers’ pedagogic choices and performanceGeography: the subject disciplineUnderpinned by Key ConceptsThinking Geographically
9The learning “fetish” Where ‘learning’ is regarded as: A good thing in itself - and assumed to be value free in this sense.(It is not. Learning can be trivial, dangerous or wrong)An essentially scientific or technical process –thus, with correct technique, learning can be ‘accelerated’, as if this were an end in itself.(But understanding aspects of science, history or art can be counter-intuitive, and require sustained, sometimes painstaking effort)Paramount. Teaching is subservient to, and led by, the learning. We become embarrassed by teaching, and instead talk only about ‘facilitating’ learning.(A profession that abrogates responsibility in this way may be one that has lost confidence in itself)
10“Bringing Knowledge Back In” Schools are special places (they are not ‘everyday places’)Inducting young people into ‘powerful knowledge’Clear distinction between curriculum and pedagogy(Michael Young 2008)
11White Paper: The Importance of Teaching ‘core knowledge’ ‘The National Curriculum should set out clearly the core knowledge and understanding that all children should be expected to acquire in the course of their schooling. (para 4.7)
12The GA’s Geography Curriculum Consultation Clear vision of geography’s contribution and purpose- the foundational ideas of geography and education- ‘capabilities’Rationale for handling geographical knowledge- Kn1: geographical context; ‘core knowledge’- Kn2: conceptual content knowledge- Kn3: ‘procedural’ knowledge andapplied practical skills
13Thinking Geographically “Vocabulary”This is a metaphor for geographical ‘coreknowledge’ and locational context“Grammar”This is a metaphor for conceptual andprocedural knowledgePeter Jackson (2005).“
14Thinking Geographically and ‘Capability’ Through geography, pupils’ ‘capabilities’ are enhanced through:Acquisition and development of ‘world knowledge’(this may be equated with enabling ‘core knowledge’)Understanding inter-relationships (plus place and spatial relations, scale and connection and proximity and distance )Propensity to think, through ‘decision making’ and other applied pedagogic activities, about how places, societies and environments are made, and how they change.“
15Geography 5-16: the overarching framework PLACE(places, territories and regions)Local place knowledge in community and regional contextBritain/UK knowledge, in European contextBroad world knowledge including continents, oceans, countries, significant Earth features such as wind patterns, tectonic structuresIn-depth studies of specific places or regions different from their own, focussing on people-environment interactionsStudy of places of great significance in and for the world today (including at least China, USA, Europe)In-depth study of places that are scenes of conflict at different scales (eg a local place, Afghanistan)Exemplar studies of places where physical extremes or hazards dominateSPACE(patterns and links)Examples of economic patterns of production, distribution and change in industry, leisure, agricultureUnderstanding of resource distributions and food, water and energy security on regional, national and international scaleReasons for and processes behind the location and changing distributions of populationUnderstanding of flows and movements of people, goods and ideas, with examples on a regional, national and global scaleUnderstanding of spatial systems, such as climate, through the distribution of energy through ocean currents and wind patternsENVIRONMENT(physical and human interaction)Studies of fragile landscapes such as deserts, polar regions, mountains and reefsUnderstanding different approaches to managing and living with changing physical and human environmentsProcesses involved in distribution and patterns of major physical features, including natural regions and ecosystemsUnderstand the Earth’s oceans and their significanceUnderstand landscapes as distinctive collections of landforms, soils and Earth surface processesInvestigating the links between social, economic and environmental qualityUnderstanding renewable and non renewable resources from the Earth and its atmosphereGEOG ENQUIRY(procedures and skills)Maps – what they show us, how to use them and how to construct themHow to use and apply geographic information systems (GIS)How to use a wide variety of sources, databases, and visualisation technologies, to analyse and evaluateHow to investigate an environmental issue at first-hand or using primary sourcesFirst hand investigation via fieldwork: photography, GPS, sketching, interviewing, meeting people etcWriting descriptively and analytically about places, spaces and environments; constructing and challenging arguments
16Geography 5-16: the programme structure Key stages:Statement of goals and purpose for each Key StageKey stages to be expressed through 4-6 core topicsTopics to be carefully ‘choreographed’Progressive context ‘coverage’ and exposureConsistent with the overarching conceptual framework: Place, Space and EnvironmentEach topic captured by key ‘organising questions’Explicit about what should be taughtOpen about how the teaching should be organised: themes, issues, regions or a mix of these
17Key stage statement Example KS2(b) Pupils are taught to use maps of the school and the community (including OS maps), and frequently use atlases and globes. They investigate contrasting localities, identifying links between places, particularly through trade and the production and consumption of energy. They should explore two to three different countries, examining their contrasting cultures and landscapes, in the wider continental settings of Europe and the Americas. They explore patterns and regularities in economic activity, linking production and consumption of manufactured goods. They are taught about the importance of water in physically shaping the land, especially coasts. Throughout KS2 pupils build up knowledge of some of the key features of the earth’s surface and some significant places. In a global context they may study the significance of seas and the oceans: for example, in regulating climate.
18Topic specification 1. Broad description of the topic: Single paragraph, written with technical precisionContent rigour (avoiding generic statements)Identifying the core of essential knowledge (not everything that has to be ‘covered’)Clear about the ‘point’ of teaching the topic2. Specific assessment indicators:Of topic specific knowledge and understandingTo encourage progressive development in ‘thinking geographically’
19Example KS1 Weather Assessment Pupils will be able to show evidence of:Foundational knowledgeIdentify and use terms to name and describe elements of the weatherUnderstandingExplain a weather pattern in terms of place, local conditions and/or time of yearProcedures and skillsKeep a weather diary to show observations of changeRecord and use a weather map using symbolsThinking GeographicallyPlace-space: children are beginning to show an understanding of the distinctiveness of places and spatial patterns of phenomenaProgrammeThis topic exposes children to an aspect of the physical environment which can be touched, seen, felt and measured. Pupils should build a vocabulary to describe weather observations. The topic shows how the weather has impact and that human beings respond. Pupils should understand that the weather happens in the atmosphere and that it changes from day to day and from place to place. They should begin to understand causes for this and for seasonal variations, and, using maps and simple symbols, record, talk and write about the changing weather and its impact.
20Example KS3 Catastrophic natural events Programme Through exposure to a variety of examples, pupils develop understanding of a range of catastrophic natural events: including earthquakes and volcanoes; extreme weather events such as hurricanes, and both river and coastal inundation. Studies should focus on the physical mechanisms of the events themselves but also on broader explanations which include human actions (such as deforestation) and the continued human occupation of hazardous locations. The topic teaches about human response to perceived risk, and the idea of ‘preparedness’ for natural hazards.Assessment (eg earthquakes and volcanoes) Pupils will show evidence of:Foundational knowledgeThe global distribution of volcanoes and plate boundariesUnderstanding-explain the relationship between volcanic activity and plate boundaries- describe the impact of volcanic eruptions on human activities, and explain how people can respond to the hazardProcedures and skillsThey can use atlas and graphic skills to locate, describe and explain tectonic distributionsThinking GeographicallyScale and connection: Pupils understand that global processes, whether tectonic or climatic, can result in localised events ... which may themselves have widespread, even global consequences
21The sequence of topics 5-16yrs KS1 (5-7yrs) Topic Chief Organising Question Physical: weather What is the weather like & why does it change? Countries: in UK What is it like to live here? Environment: farming Where is food produced? World: Australasia Where is Australia and what is it like?
22The sequence of topics 5-16yrs KS2a (7-9 yrs) Topic Chief Organising Question Physical: rivers How do rivers affect the landscape & our lives? Countries: in Africa Where is Africa & how are we connected? Environment: leisure Where do people go for leisure and holidays? World: climate/biomes Where are deserts, rainforests and polar regions?
23The sequence of topics 5-16yrs KS2b (9-11 yrs) Topic Chief Organising Question Physical: coasts Why do coasts change so quickly? Europe & the Americas What are the links between them? Environment: Energy Why do we need energy and where do we get it? World: trade Where are the thing we consume produced and how do they get here?
24The sequence of topics 5-16yrs KS3 (11-13 yrs) Topic Chief Organising Question Physical: Ice How has ice shaped the land in the N hemisphere? Countries: Asia Is this the Asian century? Environment: water What water do we need and where do we get it? World: natural events What causes catastrophic natural events and how do people respond? Development Who gets what where and why, and why care? UK Space How are settlements, landscapes and life changing in the UK today?
25The sequence of topics 5-16yrs KS4 (13-16 yrs)Topic Chief Organising QuestionClimate and climate change What explains climate variation over space and time?Population change What are the causes and consequences of population change?Geomorphology How is the land shaped and over what timescaleUrbanisation What are the consequences of an ‘urban planet’?Globalisation How does living in a globalised world affect localities and places?Sustainable development In what ways are social, economic and environmental change related?
26Role development - for the GA Advice: on the statutory curriculumInterpretation: curriculum makingStandards setting: communicating ‘quality’Exemplars: through the Geography Quality Mark, Making Geography Happen etcMaterials: professional and classroom publications (including tests)