Presentation on theme: "Africa: Diversity and Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Africa: Diversity and Development Lecture to the Annual Conference of the Geographical Association University of Manchester 13 April 2012 Professor Tony Binns & Associate Professor Etienne Nel University of Otago Dunedin New Zealand
2IntroductionThis presentation - closely linked with conference theme of “Geographies of Difference”Africa – an ideal case example of “geographies of difference” – this theme will form a key basis of this presentation.Recent developments inAfrica – link with key themesin the Geography curriculumWe will draw on our recentlypublished book
3Africa’s place in the School Curriculum - can be linked to the following ‘A’-level and GCSE curriculum themes:Contemporary geographical issuesWorld cities / changing urban and rural environmentsDevelopment and globalizationDevelopment and inequality / development gapDevelopment dilemmas / world developmentContemporary conflictsPopulation and resources / population changeManaging resources
4Africa - can be used as an exemplar of: * Key themes in the curriculum e.g. development /resources/conflict, and* Recent rapid changes & current issues of global contestation e.g. food shortages/climate change/the MDGsFocus of this presentation:1. Changing perceptions of the continent2. Africa’s diversity3. Selected key themes:a) Africa and the MDGsb) Recent trends – Growth and challengesc) Food securityd) Post-conflict4. Conclusion
5Africa – the world’s poorest continent, but recent positive signs: Better economic performance in the last/current recession than most continents: 35% of Africans live in countries with +4% growth for last 10 yearsAfrica’s middle class has increased to 313 million(c. 33% of population)Estimated 100,000 African millionairesFewer coups : 24 in the 1960s, 5 in the 2000sMore democracyMajor advances in cell-phone / internet banking
6The 56 Countries of Africa 49 mainland states & 7 island states* Algeria Gabon [ •Reunion]Angola Gambia RwandaBenin Ghana •Sao TomeBotswana Guinea & PrincipeBurkina Faso Guinea-Bissau SenegalBurundi Kenya •SeychellesCameroon Lesotho Sierra LeoneCape Verde Liberia South AfricaCentral African Republic Libya SudanChad •Madagascar South SudanComoros Malawi TanzaniaCongo Mali Togo(Brazzaville Congo, DRC, Zaire) Mauritania TunisiaCote d`Ivoire •Mauritius UgandaDjibouti Morocco Western SaharaEgypt Mozambique ZambiaEquatorial Guinea Namibia ZimbabweEritrea NigerEthiopia NigeriaLIST 55 COUNTRIES OF AFRICA
7Africa’s DiversityAfrica is the Second largest continent after Asia – 30,065,000 sq km., 20.2% of Earth’s land surfacePopulation in 2011 – billion Most populated country – Nigeria: c.150 million (2009)
9Theme A: Africa and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Adopted by the UN General Assembly in 20008 globally agreed development targets to achieve by 2015.While many countries in Asia and Latin America are on track to meet them, many African countries sadly will not.
10What are the MDGs ? Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target 1: Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a dayTarget 2: Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Goal 2: Achieve universal primary educationTarget 3: Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schoolingGoal 3: Promote gender equality and empower womenTarget 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015
11What are the MDGs (contd). Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Target 5: Reduce by two thirds the under-5 mortality rate Goal 5: Improve maternal health Target 6: Reduce by three quarters maternal mortality Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Target 7: Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDSTarget 8: Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseasesGoal 7: Ensure environmental sustainabilityGoal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
12Attaining the MDGsAfrica still has the highest proportion of people of any region in the world living on less than $1.25 per day.This figure fell from 58 to 51% between , but Developing World average fell from 45% to 27% (UN MDG Report, 2011)% of children who are underweight in Africa fell 27%-22% ( ).Slow improvement in health and educational scores in Africa. Adult literacy (over 15 yrs) only 40.9% in Sierra Leone
13Theme B: Recent Trends: Growth and Challenges While there are some positive signs in Africa, many deep-seated challenges remain which are hindering the attainment of the MDGs and broader development goalsSome of the most obvious challenges include:- rapid urbanization and under-resourced cities- refugee crises and lingering conflict / corruption- health crises – especially HIV/AIDS and malaria- persistent poverty- significant disparities – spatially and socially
14Africa’s 10 largest cities in 2008 1. Cairo m Lagos m Kinshasa m Khartoum m Luanda m Alexandria 4.2 m7. Abidjan m8. Johannesburg m9. Algiers 3.4m10. Cape Town m
15Recent TrendsDevelopment challenges and backlogs will remain for some timeBut scope to explore recent positive economic trends and emerging themes of interest, including;- Chinese investment- Climate change- Global food and oil shortages and land acquisition in Africa
16Theme C: Food Security“Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO, 1996)Food security is important to achieve at least 4 of the MDG’sGoal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerGoal 4: Reduce child mortalityGoal 5: Improve maternal healthGoal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
17Food security in Africa Report by FAO in 2006 suggested that;Food insecurity and undernourishment are widespread in Africa,And undernourishment actually increased in Africa by around 20% between 1990 and 2002.This is in stark contrast to the rest of the world, where the number of undernourished people has fallen steadily.
18Urban agriculture: a key strategy to ensure food security The context*Rapid growth of Africa’s towns and cities*Rising prices of basic foodstuffs*Increasing importance of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) - vegetables, fruit, some grain crops (e.g. maize).The value of UPA- supplements household food intake- provides extra income from crop sales- provides employment- empowers women and youths- enhances the sustainability of cities, increased self-sufficiency- a useful adaptation to climate change.
19Theme D: Conflict and Post-Conflict Reconstruction Between 2000 and 2010 – armed conflict in 24 African countries“The costs of war in Africa have cancelled out the potential impact of 15 years of development aid” (UN Deputy Secretary-General, 2010)Conflict leads to;- collapse of economic systems- increase in military expenditure, and other sectors neglected (e.g. health, education)- destruction of state infrastructure e.g. roads, power, health, education, legal system- destruction of community and household infrastructure- deaths from conflict, but also from disease and starvation with poor health care- widespread suffering, trauma and dislocation
20Sierra LeoneMuch in the news in recent years - synonymous with conflict and diamondsCivil war: – caused by poor governance, disaffected youths, instability in LiberiaMassive displacement of people and destructionof infrastructure - more than 500,000 people displacedMajor economic activities disrupted, including farming, mining and forestryPeople flooded into the capital city, Freetown, for safety, increasing the demand for food.
21Sierra Leone today… Now one of the poorest countries in the world UNDP, Human Development Report, 2011 (data for 2009)HDI rank, 180 out of 187Life expectancy at birth: years (UK: 80 years)Adult literacy: 40.9%Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births): 123 (UK: 5/1000)Under-5 mortality: 192 per 1000 live births (UK: 6/1000).
22Post-conflict reconstruction and development in Sierra Leone Key prioritiesDisarmament and stabilityDemocratic and non-corrupt governance at all levelsRe-patriation for refugeesRe-incorporation of ex-combatants into communitiesCommunity-based education overcome trauma and plan for developmentReconstructing infrastructure - roads, schools, hospitals, telecommunicationsJob creation, particularly for youthsRestoring systems - health, education, economy, taxation, trade, legal, tv and radio.
23Conclusion Perceptions of Africa are often negative Africa has been marginalised and has a lot of catching up to doBut many positive things are happening in AfricaAfrica is the continent to watch in the years aheadSouth Africa joined the BRIC’s group of rapidly developing countries in 2011To find out more, please read our book!!