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United we stand: the value of networks Susan Bermingham Manchester Metropolitan University Susan Bermingham Manchester Metropolitan University.

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Presentation on theme: "United we stand: the value of networks Susan Bermingham Manchester Metropolitan University Susan Bermingham Manchester Metropolitan University."— Presentation transcript:

1 United we stand: the value of networks Susan Bermingham Manchester Metropolitan University Susan Bermingham Manchester Metropolitan University

2 United we stand / What is a network? / Theories / Why should I network? / Useful networks for me? / How can I get the most from a network? / What is a network? / Theories / Why should I network? / Useful networks for me? / How can I get the most from a network?

3 Activity / Identify some school or non school teams/groups/ communities you have been a member of in the last 2 years

4 Moreno (Payne 2000:14) / Psychological well-being is related to patterns of relationships and feelings about others

5 Maslows (1970) Hierachy of needs

6 Building on Dr. Abraham Maslow's "Hierarchy of Needs" By Peter K. Gerlach, MSWGerlach Building on Dr. Abraham Maslow's "Hierarchy of Needs" By Peter K. Gerlach, MSWGerlach

7 Palmer (1994) Geography in the early years. Routledge / Each child has a unique relationship with the world in which he or she is growing up: a relationship based on feelings, experiences and interactions with people, places, objects and events.

8 Field 2003 / By making connections with one another, and keeping them going over time, people are able to work together to achieve things that they either could not achieve by themselves, or could only achieve with great difficulty….

9 Field 2003 / We can conclude with some confidence that there is a close relationship between peoples social networks and their educational performance.

10 West-Burnham & Otero NCSL / …. Issues such as diet, housing and the effects of poverty are identified as directly affecting cognitive development and educational performance. / we will be linking this later to the Every Child Matters agenda / …. Issues such as diet, housing and the effects of poverty are identified as directly affecting cognitive development and educational performance. / we will be linking this later to the Every Child Matters agenda

11 Network theories ….. Starting with Euler …

12 Euler (1707-83)- Konigsberg The daddy of network theories!!

13 / Could the locals visit all parts of the town (on two islands and 2 riverbanks) without crossing the same bridge twice?

14 Solution Each piece of land is a node, the bridges are the edges connecting the nodes. The degree of a node is the number of edges touching it; in the Königsberg example, three nodes (pieces of land) have a degree of 3 (bridges) and one has a degree of 5. A Euler walk is only possible with a maximum of two odd degrees. Further, if there are two nodes of odd degree, those must be the starting and ending points of an Eulerian path. Since the graph corresponding to Königsberg has four nodes of odd degree, it cannot have an Eulerian path. Each piece of land is a node, the bridges are the edges connecting the nodes. The degree of a node is the number of edges touching it; in the Königsberg example, three nodes (pieces of land) have a degree of 3 (bridges) and one has a degree of 5. A Euler walk is only possible with a maximum of two odd degrees. Further, if there are two nodes of odd degree, those must be the starting and ending points of an Eulerian path. Since the graph corresponding to Königsberg has four nodes of odd degree, it cannot have an Eulerian path.

15 Key Messages from Network Theory / Networking simplifies complexity by concentrating on the important things / Idea of points (individuals or groups) and lines (connections) / Networking simplifies complexity by concentrating on the important things / Idea of points (individuals or groups) and lines (connections)

16 A bit more theory!! / Social network analysis views social relationships in terms of nodes (people) and ties (connections). / Social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations, and play a critical role in determining the way problems are solved, organizations are run, and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals. / Wikipedia / Social network analysis views social relationships in terms of nodes (people) and ties (connections). / Social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations, and play a critical role in determining the way problems are solved, organizations are run, and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals. / Wikipedia

17 Activity / With you as the focal point have a go at drawing the networks supporting you as a teacher (of geography) / Start with family, friends, work colleagues. / The thickness of the lines should represent how important the connection / With you as the focal point have a go at drawing the networks supporting you as a teacher (of geography) / Start with family, friends, work colleagues. / The thickness of the lines should represent how important the connection

18 Putmann (1993) Johnston et al (2000) / The concept of social capital emerged as the central explanatory variable in his analysis of the factors underlying the economic success of the north-eastern regions of Italy relative to the rest of the country. / Economic prosperity could be attributed to the prevalence of certain norms of reciprocity, trust and civic engagement that encouraged cooperation and collaboration. / The concept of social capital emerged as the central explanatory variable in his analysis of the factors underlying the economic success of the north-eastern regions of Italy relative to the rest of the country. / Economic prosperity could be attributed to the prevalence of certain norms of reciprocity, trust and civic engagement that encouraged cooperation and collaboration.

19 Key message from Social Capital theory …. / Social Capital theory.. explains how some people gain more success in a particular setting through their superior connections to other people.

20 Almost the end of the theory bit … / Recently there has been much discussion of email and online communities and whether they help build social capital. Some argue that they may bridge people together but do not bond them. / Another interesting debate among political scientists has regarded whether email helps produce or diminish social capital within the workplace. Wikipedia / Recently there has been much discussion of email and online communities and whether they help build social capital. Some argue that they may bridge people together but do not bond them. / Another interesting debate among political scientists has regarded whether email helps produce or diminish social capital within the workplace. Wikipedia

21 Sunday Observer 1/04/07 The Networker John Naughton / According to a survey by the Pew Internet & American Life Project, more than half of all American kids between 12 and 17 use online social networking sites such as MySpace or Facebook. / Is a contact the same as a friend? The Networker John Naughton / According to a survey by the Pew Internet & American Life Project, more than half of all American kids between 12 and 17 use online social networking sites such as MySpace or Facebook. / Is a contact the same as a friend?

22 Granovetter (Scott 1991) / We share the same stale information with people with whom we have strong ties / People with whom we have weak ties are important sources of new information Malcolm Payne [2000] / We share the same stale information with people with whom we have strong ties / People with whom we have weak ties are important sources of new information Malcolm Payne [2000]

23 Discussion / Your chance to discuss your views on: / Does email enhance social cohesion in the workplace? / Do you agree with Granovetters view on weak ties as important sources for new information? / Your chance to discuss your views on: / Does email enhance social cohesion in the workplace? / Do you agree with Granovetters view on weak ties as important sources for new information?

24 Michael Totterdell Director IOE MMU / The fundamental importance of networks is their capacity to stretch and lift our horizons whilst keeping us connected in associative meaning-rich patterns of existence.

25 Andy Jones Assistant Director IOE MMU / The development of Every Child Matters in schools and other workplaces remains variable and multi-professional connections, fuelled by new networks and dialogue will be one key to accessing further levels of success and ECM adoption. / At present, many teachers dwell in comfort zones (departmental, phase, school, region) and resist wider notions of inter-connectivity with cognate professionals and those in farther off locations. / The development of Every Child Matters in schools and other workplaces remains variable and multi-professional connections, fuelled by new networks and dialogue will be one key to accessing further levels of success and ECM adoption. / At present, many teachers dwell in comfort zones (departmental, phase, school, region) and resist wider notions of inter-connectivity with cognate professionals and those in farther off locations.

26 Every Child Matters: Change for Children / The Government's aim is for every child, whatever their background or their circumstances, to have the support they need to: / Be healthy / Stay safe / Enjoy and achieve / Make a positive contribution / Achieve economic well-being. / The Government's aim is for every child, whatever their background or their circumstances, to have the support they need to: / Be healthy / Stay safe / Enjoy and achieve / Make a positive contribution / Achieve economic well-being.

27 Every Child Matters / Organisations involved with providing services to children - will be teaming up in new ways, sharing information and working together, to protect children and young people from harm and help them achieve what they want in life.

28 Anne Edwards (Uni of Oxford) / Researching on the learning of practitioners across professional and organisational boundaries as they make available and access expertise to support the social inclusion of children, young people and their families. / Understanding how practitioners learn to work together on common objects of activity such as a childs trajectory from exclusion to inclusion and the impact of the Every Child Matters agenda on teachers professional practices. / Researching on the learning of practitioners across professional and organisational boundaries as they make available and access expertise to support the social inclusion of children, young people and their families. / Understanding how practitioners learn to work together on common objects of activity such as a childs trajectory from exclusion to inclusion and the impact of the Every Child Matters agenda on teachers professional practices.

29 Networks I have found useful / Geographical Association - National & branches / RGS / National Projects - GSIP / Development Education Centres / Examination Groups / Geography Teacher Educators / BBC Advisory Group / Mersey Basin Trust / MERCI / Friends of Healey Dell/ Save Spodden Valley / Geographical Association - National & branches / RGS / National Projects - GSIP / Development Education Centres / Examination Groups / Geography Teacher Educators / BBC Advisory Group / Mersey Basin Trust / MERCI / Friends of Healey Dell/ Save Spodden Valley

30 Geographical Association

31 Value of the GA / Over the last few months I have asked …. / Just two questions ! When were you first aware of the GA? & What has been the value of the GA to you? / Over the last few months I have asked …. / Just two questions ! When were you first aware of the GA? & What has been the value of the GA to you?

32 A few of the responses / 1957 / Member as 6th form student. Value keeping up with latest developments in subject (still important even tho Im retired) / Learning from others in informal & formal settings about teaching methods. Most especially former. / Social life. / 1957 / Member as 6th form student. Value keeping up with latest developments in subject (still important even tho Im retired) / Learning from others in informal & formal settings about teaching methods. Most especially former. / Social life.

33 A few more … / 1960 / The joy of meeting other geography enthusiasts, and friendly ones too! For many years I was the only professional geographer in the school & running a department with three non-geographers. Contact with the GA was invaluable. / 1960 / The joy of meeting other geography enthusiasts, and friendly ones too! For many years I was the only professional geographer in the school & running a department with three non-geographers. Contact with the GA was invaluable.

34 The Chief Executive response! / 1974 / First came across GA as a PGCE student in 1974. It was the means for a new, busy teacher to begin to appreciate where geography in school is, and where it has come from. The conference exhibition was the way to get to grips with all the new materials available and learning resources. / Later I recognised that the GA lobbied and argued for me and the subject (e.g. Bailey & Binns 1986 Case for Geography) / Membership of working groups and later the publications committee gave me an opportunity for my CPD and to begin to wield influence on the wider scene. / Later still, it has become my employer. / 1974 / First came across GA as a PGCE student in 1974. It was the means for a new, busy teacher to begin to appreciate where geography in school is, and where it has come from. The conference exhibition was the way to get to grips with all the new materials available and learning resources. / Later I recognised that the GA lobbied and argued for me and the subject (e.g. Bailey & Binns 1986 Case for Geography) / Membership of working groups and later the publications committee gave me an opportunity for my CPD and to begin to wield influence on the wider scene. / Later still, it has become my employer.

35 Two more …. / 1986/1987 / I have subscribed to Primary Geography since it began in 1989. This was its main value to me in those days, ideas for use in classroom and then as advising teacher. Later, as I became more active member, I have valued the support the network has provided. / 1986/1987 / I have subscribed to Primary Geography since it began in 1989. This was its main value to me in those days, ideas for use in classroom and then as advising teacher. Later, as I became more active member, I have valued the support the network has provided.

36 Last one … / 1996 / useful lectures / contacts to cover maternity leave at school / enjoy the meals / annual dinners – good variety / students enjoy lectures / 1996 / useful lectures / contacts to cover maternity leave at school / enjoy the meals / annual dinners – good variety / students enjoy lectures

37 Value of GA / Branches, Journals, Lectures, Keeping up to date, Social life, Ideas, Support, Conference, Companionship, Influence, Sources, Promotes, News, Inspiration, Curriculum support, Meet Experts, Pedagogy, Committees, Conference Exhibition, Community, Discussion, Friends, Filling posts, Schemes of work, Lobbying, Creativity, On-line Support, Publications, Contacts etc.

38 Inca-Kola A travellers tale of Peru by Matthew Parris / Why do people introduced at dinner already know half the people you know?

39 We are all connected – Kevin Bacon / Show of hands.. If you have walked up Snowdon / Did you refresh at the summit café? / http://blog.snowdonia-active.com http://blog.snowdonia-active.com / Trail Magazine Dec 2006:146 demonstrates how a trip up Snowdon connects you to Sherpa Tenzing Norgay / Show of hands.. If you have walked up Snowdon / Did you refresh at the summit café? / http://blog.snowdonia-active.com http://blog.snowdonia-active.com / Trail Magazine Dec 2006:146 demonstrates how a trip up Snowdon connects you to Sherpa Tenzing Norgay

40 / Snowdon Café built in 1936 by / 1.Sir Clough Williams-Ellis. He was also famous for designing Portmeirion the location for the Prisoner starring / 2.Patrick McGoohan (who allegedly took a role in the movie Ice Station Zebra - to fund episodes of the Prisoner). / 3. Alistair Maclean wrote Ice Station Zebra, and Where Eagles Dare. / 4. Clint Eastwood starred in the movie Where Eagles Dare (1968).Clint also starred & directed in The Eiger Station (1975). / Snowdon Café built in 1936 by / 1.Sir Clough Williams-Ellis. He was also famous for designing Portmeirion the location for the Prisoner starring / 2.Patrick McGoohan (who allegedly took a role in the movie Ice Station Zebra - to fund episodes of the Prisoner). / 3. Alistair Maclean wrote Ice Station Zebra, and Where Eagles Dare. / 4. Clint Eastwood starred in the movie Where Eagles Dare (1968).Clint also starred & directed in The Eiger Station (1975).

41 / Clint Eastwood was advised and assisted by British Climbers / 5. Dougal Haston & Hamish McInnes and the Canadian Chic Scott. Dougal Haston (1940-1977) a scotsman started climbing railway walls and churches (allegedly leaving womens underwear on the flagpole!). / In 1975 he climbed Everest with Doug Scott by the South West Face. / Clint Eastwood was advised and assisted by British Climbers / 5. Dougal Haston & Hamish McInnes and the Canadian Chic Scott. Dougal Haston (1940-1977) a scotsman started climbing railway walls and churches (allegedly leaving womens underwear on the flagpole!). / In 1975 he climbed Everest with Doug Scott by the South West Face.

42 / In 1935 the body of the eccentric British Everest climber / 6. Maurice Wilson (from Bradford) was discovered by the Bill Tillman / Eric Shipton expedition. Allegedly in his rucksac were a number of items of ladys underwear. He ran a womens clothing shop in New Zealand. / On their team was a young / 7. Sherpa Tenzing Norgay - his first mountain expedition. In 1953 with Edmund Hillary he would make the first assent of Everest. / In 1935 the body of the eccentric British Everest climber / 6. Maurice Wilson (from Bradford) was discovered by the Bill Tillman / Eric Shipton expedition. Allegedly in his rucksac were a number of items of ladys underwear. He ran a womens clothing shop in New Zealand. / On their team was a young / 7. Sherpa Tenzing Norgay - his first mountain expedition. In 1953 with Edmund Hillary he would make the first assent of Everest.

43 Special Offer for you!! / Joint Membership of the GA & the RGS with IBG / New Early Careers Teacher joint membership scheme supports you in your first 5 years of training and development as a geography teacher / Joint Membership of the GA & the RGS with IBG / New Early Careers Teacher joint membership scheme supports you in your first 5 years of training and development as a geography teacher

44 Lord Adonis & Michael Palin / We strongly recommend that all teachers of geography join these organisations because we see membership as critical for subject specialist professional development

45 teamwork in multiprofessional care by Malcolm Payne [2000] Macmillan Press Ltd. / Accessible book as an introduction to theories & the different ways multi professional teams can work together


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