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Europe: One geography – is it possible and is it something to strive for? Modernities and Geography Education: A Comparative Study of Romania, Sweden and.

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Presentation on theme: "Europe: One geography – is it possible and is it something to strive for? Modernities and Geography Education: A Comparative Study of Romania, Sweden and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Europe: One geography – is it possible and is it something to strive for? Modernities and Geography Education: A Comparative Study of Romania, Sweden and England

2 The Hunch Experiences as a student and a teacher in different European countries – Romania – pupil – Sweden – university student and teacher – Belgium and England – teacher False assumption to start with: that Geography, both as a school subject and how the geographical reality is perceived, was the same for everyone

3 Starting off the process... Once having been exposed to different countries school geographies and perception of the geographical reality, the question arose – why is there such a difference? I have chosen to look for the answer in the modernity paths of three of the countries where I had most contact with geography as a school subject: Romania, Sweden and England The actual research was made on the each country's respective national curricula which have been produced throughout this period of modernisation

4 The actual research Contextual reading of the geography national curricula of the three countries as it has developed over the years Each country has been looked upon from the modernisation path point of view The geography national curricula has then investigated through the different types of modernity glasses and in this way established the role geography education playes in the construction of different forms of modernity in each country.

5 But what is modernity? As Ocatavio Paz expressed it, there are as many types of modernity as there are societies. On that note I started the modernity journey for the three countries, guided by a series of theories on the topic of modernity and of the connection between modernity and education An additional question is whether these modernities are interconnected in the European context

6 Theories Education is seen by Shipman (1971) as being fluid and vibrating to social changes Dual role of education: generator of new ideas, but also as a tool for mass control School is seen by Apple (2004) as institution of economic and cultural reproduction Watts and Pred (1992) see the postmodern world as characterised by the hyperspace which implies a maelstrom of perpetual disintegration and renewal

7 More theories Meyer et al (1997) provide the link between globalisation and education and the aspect of national identity – Nation-state is culturally constructed and a product of both global and local narratives – There is a risk of superficial standardisation produced at national curricula level Dale (2000) acknowledges that supra-national bodies are driven not only by a global cohesion at cultural level, but also by economical and political developments Finally, Coulby presents us with his argument that the resistance to change is too strong within the European individual nation-states for a harmonious convergence.

8 With these theories in mind... Modernity features Romania – a fractured modernity Sweden - the story of hypermodernity England – hyperspace of the global and idyllic countryside

9 Romania – a fractured modernity As Baltasiu (2009) acknowledges, the flow of the cycle of development has been interrupted by the arrival of the communist regime The countrys fractures preventing the smooth transition to modernity: – The division between the communist and post- communist periods – The division between the East and West of Europe

10 Romanian Geography Education Started off beginning of 20 th century with French influence and had the focus on regional geography. During the communist regime geography curriculum continued to keep regional geography completed by a strong politisation through propaganda. The national curriculum today still has regional geography as its focus, but European influences are being sensed in the Key Competences introduced since 2010.

11 Sweden – the story of hypermodernity As Pred (1995) points out, Sweden has developed from industrial modernity to high-modernity and on to hypermodernity which ensured the development of social welfare and social engineering unique to Sweden. Pippi Longstocking is seen by Berggren and Trägårdh (2010) as the expression of Swedish modernism: independence and individual self- sufficiency

12 Swedish Geography Education Has seen a considerable strong orientation towards the new spirit of socially and civically suitable Swedes during at the end of high- modernity The hypermodernity started off with the geography curriculum embracing global issues, social and environmental sustainability Current reforms bring the geography curriculum back on the regional geography path There seems to be a strong conflict between the national vs global identity

13 England – hyperspace of the global and idyllic countryside Great Britain – the leading country of the industrial revolution and historically a super- power – now looks with some uncertainty and nostalgia towards future The duality traditional – innovation, and global – local characterises Englands modernity path at the moment

14 English Geography Education As a true expression of hyperspace, the education has been characterised by a series of ideologies which reflect the socio-economic changes. Early exposure to modernity has facilitated a broader view of the world and its problems – mirrored in the radical geography phase of the geography education in England

15 United in Diversity? The context in which a country has shaped its modernity seems to be the decisive factor in creating the geographical imaginations which are communicated through the geography curricula of the countries investigated in this study. Culturally constructed, each country's concept of geography differs more than was initially expected. As part of the Europeanisation process, these countries curricula seem to be divergent rather than convergent. As Coulby (2000) pessimistically expresses it, the European spectrum of cultures, histories and traditions seems to be too diversified to allow a unified European educational system– too many and too different geographical imaginations promoted through national-bound curricula. What they all have in common is that the geography national curricula follows closely the modernisation paths, and to a certaon extent we all belong to the hyperspace and the geography imagination(s) of each country is shaped accordingly.

16 References Apple, M, W (2004), Ideology and Curriculum, New York; London: Routledge Falmer Baltasiu, R, B ă descu, I, Bulumac, O, Dumitrescu, L, Şerban, A, (2009) Modernit ă ţi fracturate: Elitele, România şi Europa (partea I şi II), Etnosfera 4, pp 1-24, 5, pp 1-21, [Accessed ] Berggren, H and Trägårdh, L (2010), Pippi Longstocking, the Autonomous Child and the Moral Logic of the Swedish Welfare State, in Mattson, H and Wallerstein, S-O, (ed), Swedish Modernism - Architecture, consumption and the welfare state, London: Black Dog Publishing Limited Birzea, C (1996), Educational Reform and Power Struggles in Romania, European Journal of Education, 31:1, Bonnett, A (2008), What is Geography?, London: Sage Publications Ltd.Coulby, D (2000), Beyond the National Curriculum, London: Routledge Falmer Dale, R (2000), Globalisation and Education: Demonstrating a Common World Educational Culture or Locating a Globally Structured Educational Agenda?, Educational Theory, 50.4, pp Destouni, G, Forsberg, G, Fridfeldt, A, Grundström, A, Heldén, U, Holmgren, K, Kuylenstierna, J, Molin, L, Olsson, L, Sjöström, L, Stroeven, A, Torbjörnsson, T, Widgren, M, Öhman, J, (2010), Björklund kör över experterna om geografi and Modern geografi ger mer än fakta European Communities, (2007), Key Competencies for Lifelong Learning – A European Reference Framework, Luxemburg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities European Council on International Relations, The Romanian Economy will Collapse in 2011, [Accessed ] European Trade Union Confederation, Romania, General information and figures, [Accessed ] Fridfeldt, A and Molin, L, (2010), Modern geografi i skola och gymnasium, Geografiska notiser, 3.10, pp Fridfeldt, A, Sjöström, L, Molin, L Torbjörnsson, T, (2010), Geografi mer än Europa, europa [accessed ] europa Geographical Association [accessed ] Georgescu, V (1990), The Romanians – A History, Columbus: Ohio State University Press, [accessed ] Giurescu, D (2001), Înv ă ţ ă mântul în România între anii 1948 şi 1989, (Education in Romania between ), Dissertation held at University of Craiova at the awarding ceremony of Doctor Honoris Causa title. [accessed ] Glenn, G L (1995), Educational Freedom in Eastern Europe, Washington D.C.: Cato Institute Huisman, J, and Van der Wende, M, (2004), The EU and Bologna: are supra- and international initiatives threatening domestic agendas?, European Journal of Education, 39:3, pp Iordachi, C and Trencsényi, B (2003), In Search of a Usable Past: The Question of National Identity in Romanian Studies, , East European Politics and Societies, 17:3, pp , [accessed ] Lambert, D and Morgan, J (2010), Teaching Geography A Conceptual Approach, Maidenhead: Open University Press Läroplan Lgr 11 (National Curriculum 2011), (2010) [accessed ] Meyer, J, Boli, J, Thomas, G, M, Ramirez. F, O, (1997), World Society and the Nation-State, American Journal of Sociology, 103.1, pp Mândruţ, O (2010), Competenţele în învatarea geografiei: ghid metodologic pentru aplicarea curricumului de geografie din înv ă ţ ă mântul preuniversitar (Competences in geography education: methodological guide for the application of the geography curriculum in pre-university education) Bucureşti: Corint

17 Mattson, H and Wallerstein, S-O (2010), Swedish Modernism – Architecture, consumption and the welfare state, London: Black Dog Publishing Limited Molin, L (2006), Space, Curriculum space and Morality: About school geography, content and teachers' choice, Kulturgeografiska Institutionen, Uppsala: Uppsala University Press Mohan, J (1999), A United Kingdom? Economic, Social and Political Geographies, London: Arnold, Hodder Headline GroupMöller, J P (2003), Geografi didaktik Perspektiv och exempel, Stockholm: Liber AB Morgan, J (2003), Imagined Country: National Environmental Ideologies in School Geography Textbooks, Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography, 35.3, pp Morgan, J (2011), What is Radical in School Geography Today?, Forum, 53.1, pp National Board or Heath and Welfare, Socialstyrelsen (2010), Social Rapport 2010, [accessed ] National Evaluation of the Compulsory School – A Summary Report (2003), Skolverket, [accessed ] Neacşu, M, G (2010), Constituirea paradigmei pedagogiei sociale din perspectiva pedagogiei române interbelice (Institution of the social pedagogy paradigm from the Romanian inter-war pedagogy perspective), Universitatea pedagogica de stat Ion Creang ă din Chişin ă u Pavel,V (1984), Geografie – Manual pentru clasa a VII-a, București: Editura Didactic ă si Pedagogic ă Pred, A (1995), Recognizing European Modernities, A Montage of the Present, London: Routledge Pred, A and Watts, M J (1992), Reworking Modernity – Capitalisms and Symbolic Discontent, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press Programa de geografie (1976), București: Editura Didactic ă si Pedagogic ă Programa de geografie (1981), București: Editura Didactic ă si Pedagogic ă QCA (2010), The National Curriculum KS3: Geography, Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, direct link: [accessed ] Rawling, E (2001), Changing the Subject. The impact of national policy on school geography , Sheffield: Geographical Association Shipman, M D (1971), Education and Modernisation, London: Faber and Faber Limited Short, J R (1991), Imagined Country – Society, Culture and Environment, London: Routledge# Spring, J (2006), 'Pedagogies of Globalisation', Pedagogies: An International Journal, 1.2, pp Svenska Dagbladet, SVD, (2010), and [accessed ] svd Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, SKL, 2011, [accessed, ] Teodorescu, G, Ionescu, N, (1982), Geografie, Manual pentru clasa a V-a, București: Editura Didactic ă si Pedagogic ă Walford, R (1981), Language, ideologies and geography teaching in Walford, R (ed) Sign-posts for Geography Teaching, London: Longman Watts, M J (1992), Capitalisms, Crises, and Cultures I: Notes toward a Totality of Fragments, in Pred, A and Watts, M J, Reworking Modernity – Capitalisms and Symbolic Discontent, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press Wennberg, Gösta (1990), Geografi och skolgeografi - ett ämnes förändringar – en studie med exempel, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International

18 Thank you! Diana Larsson

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