Presentation on theme: "Research-based Principles of Vocabulary Teaching Norbert Schmitt"— Presentation transcript:
1Research-based Principles of Vocabulary Teaching Norbert Schmitt
2Importance of Vocabulary How important is vocabulary in first and second language use? ?
3Importance of Vocabulary How important is vocabulary in first and second language use?
4Vocabulary SizeHow large a vocabulary size do you need to function in English?a. 2,000 word familiesb. 4,000 word familiesc. 6,000 word familiesd. 8,000 word familiese. 10,000 word familiesf. 10,000+
5Vocabulary SizeHow large a vocabulary size do you need to function in English?It Depends!
6Vocabulary Size (Word families) Daily conversation2, ,000 (minimum size which enablesbasic communication)5, ,000 (size which enables conversation on a wide range of topics)Read authentic texts3, ,000 (begin to read a range of authentictexts8, ,000 (size which enables readingon a wide range of topics)
7High / Low frequency Vocabulary Hi-frequency Everything else = Low-frequency vocabulary?vocabularyTEACH DISREGARD2,000 word families everything else
9High / Mid / Low frequency Vocabulary 3, ,000 – 9, ,000+Hi-frequency Mid-frequency Low-frequencyvocabulary vocabulary vocabularyTEACH ADDRESS IN SOME WAY STRATEGIES
10Where do these size requirement estimates come from anyway?
11Fat City (95% coverage)In December, to the delight of many __________ and the ______ of many doughnut lovers, the New York City Board of Health voted to ban artificial trans fats from restaurants, school cafeterias, pushcarts, and almost every other food-service establishment it oversees, which includes most everything except hospitals. Trans fats don’t occur naturally in the things people like but feel guilty eating, or at least not at high levels (there are small proportions in the fat in meat and dairy products). But artificial ones are plentiful in commercial foods, because they are easy to use, cheaper than natural fats, and keep practically forever. Trans fats are made by pumping _______ gas into liquid fats usually in the presence of _____ so that they will remain solid at room temperature, like butter and ___; and they have the same wonderful properties in pie crusts, cookies, and cakes. Crisco, still _____ for solid shortening made by partial ___________ (of cottonseed oil), soon became the “______” choice for pie crust and fried chicken, making pastry almost as flaky and skin almost as crisp as ___ does.
12Fat City (95% coverage)In December, to the delight of many cardiologists and the dismay of many doughnut lovers, the New York City Board of Health voted to ban artificial trans fats from restaurants, school cafeterias, pushcarts, and almost every other food-service establishment it oversees, which includes most everything except hospitals. Trans fats don’t occur naturally in the things people like but feel guilty eating, or at least not at high levels (there are small proportions in the fat in meat and dairy products). But artificial ones are plentiful in commercial foods, because they are easy to use, cheaper than natural fats, and keep practically forever. Trans fats are made by pumping hydrogen gas into liquid fats usually in the presence of nickel so that they will remain solid at room temperature, like butter and lard; and they have the same wonderful properties in pie crusts, cookies, and cakes. Crisco, still generic for solid shortening made by partial hydrogenation (of cottonseed oil), soon became the “sanitary” choice for pie crust and fried chicken, making pastry almost as flaky and skin almost as crisp as lard does.
13The Truth About Beauty (98% coverage) Cosmetics makers have always sold “hope in a jar” – creams and ______ that promise youth, beauty, sex appeal, and even love for the women who use them. Over the last few years, the marketers at Dove have added some new-and-improved __________. They’re now promising self-esteem and cultural transformation. Dove’s “Campaign for Real Beauty,” declares a press release, is “a global effort that is intended to serve as a starting point for societal change and act as a ______ for widening the definition and discussion of beauty.” Along with its thigh-firming creams, self-tanners, and hair conditioners, Dove is peddling the crowd-pleasing notions that beauty is a media creation, that recognizing plural forms of beauty is the same as declaring every woman beautiful, and that self-esteem means ignoring imperfections.
14The Truth About Beauty (98% coverage) Cosmetics makers have always sold “hope in a jar” – creams and potions that promise youth, beauty, sex appeal, and even love for the women who use them. Over the last few years, the marketers at Dove have added some new-and-improved enticements. They’re now promising self-esteem and cultural transformation. Dove’s “Campaign for Real Beauty,” declares a press release, is “a global effort that is intended to serve as a starting point for societal change and act as a catalyst for widening the definition and discussion of beauty.” Along with its thigh-firming creams, self-tanners, and hair conditioners, Dove is peddling the crowd-pleasing notions that beauty is a media creation, that recognizing plural forms of beauty is the same as declaring every woman beautiful, and that self-esteem means ignoring imperfections.
15Coverage Size Requirement 98-99% 8,000-9,000 word families for reading
17Vocabulary Coverage vs Vocabulary Coverage vs. Listening Comprehension (van Zeeland & Schmitt, 2013)
18Coverage Size Requirement 95% 2,000-3,000 word families for listening tospoken narratives
19English Vocabulary Size of Foreign Learners (Laufer, 2000) Vocabulary Hours ofSize InstructionJapan EFL University 2,000-2, ,200China English majors ,000 1,800-2,400Indonesia EFL University ,Oman EFL University , ,350+Israel High school graduates , ,500France High school ,Greece Age 15, high school ,Germany Age 15, high school ,
20How to Address Such Large Amounts of Vocabulary? Why not teach just the most ‘content-ful’ words?Technical VocabularyESP vocabularyAcademic Support Vocabularye.g. Academic Word List (Coxhead, 2000)2020
21Developing LSP Word Lists “Technical vocabulary ‘is dependent for a full appreciation of its meaning on the meaning of the other terms in the cluster of which it is a member.’”(Godman and Payne, 1981: 37,in Coxhead and Nation, 2001)
22An ESP Text (Wang, et al., 2008) Technical Vocabulary only wounds wound healing. woundswounds pressure ulcers leg ulcers.wounds clinical Pressure ulcersischemia necrosis hospitalized mobilityLeg ulcers etiologies ulcersdysfunctionbackflow blood bloodmacromolecules dermis, nutrients
24A Complete Medical Text Chronic wounds represent a different kind of challenge for wound healing. These wounds do not usually involve a large surface area, but they have a high incidence in the general population and thus have enormous medical and economic impacts. The most common chronic wounds include pressure ulcers and leg ulcers. In the United States alone, these wounds are estimated to affect more than 2 million people with total clinical treatment costs as high as $1 billion annually. Pressure ulcers, characterized by tissue ischemia and necrosis, are common among patients in long-term care settings, but patients hospitalized for short-term care settings are also at risk if mobility is impaired. Leg ulcers can have a variety of etiologies. Venous ulcers are the most common, often resulting from dysfunction of valves in veins of the lower leg that normally prevent the backflow of venous blood. Venous congestion leads to leakage of blood and macromolecules into the dermis, which can act as physical barriers to diffusion of oxygen and nutrients from the
25Need Foundation Vocabulary So academic and technical word lists are useful, but cannot replace the need for learners to have a solid foundation of high- and mid-frequency vocabulary in place
26How to Address Such Large Amounts of Vocabulary? These are clearly large numbers of word families to learnLong-term goalMost teachers do not have the time, expertise, or opportunity to organize large amounts of vocabulary over a period of timeMost will rely on textbooks to provide the principled selection and instruction of vocabulary
27How to Address Such Large Amounts of Vocabulary? A single textbook cannot do the job (even a vocabulary textbook)So are textbook series up to the task?2727
29Chilean Case Study (Diaz Berrocal) Ministry sets vocabulary targets for 8 years of ELT schoolingAnalyzed mandatory books for the 8 years( 5th-12th grades)Counted number of word families in booksFrequency analysis of those word familiesHow much recycling was there?2929
34Frequency of Words in Textbooks Shared with COCA 3000Proper nounsWithout With5th 67% 83%6th 70% 86%7th 68% 83%8th % 83%9th % 82%10th % 76%11th % 77%12th % 76%3434
35Frequency of Words in Textbooks Shared with COCA 3000Proper nounsWithout With All <95%5th 67% 83%6th 70% 86%7th 68% 83%8th % 83%9th % 82%10th % 76%11th % 77%12th % 76%3535
36Recycling of 1st 3,000 WordsFormer Texts New Text # Recycled %Recycled%%, %, %, %, %+10, %+10+113636
37Chilean Case Study Conclusions Textbooks do not match Ministry goalsNo obvious approach to vocabulary selection or recyclingMinistry gives size goals, not specific word listsPublishers given no guidance as to what words to useDifferent publishers do not liaise with each other to build coherent program3737
39What Does It Mean to Know A Word? Form Spoken formWritten formWord partsMeaning Form and meaningConcept and referentsAssociationsUse Grammatical functionsCollocationsConstraints on use(register, frequency…)(Nation, 2001: 27)39
40Lexical Organization“Vocabulary size is not a feature of individual words: rather it is a characteristic of the test taker’s entire vocabulary.”(Meara and Wolter, 2004: 87)Size is a feature of the overall lexicon4040
41Lexical OrganizationNature of the Lexicon must be connected with vocabulary knowledgeBetter connected and more highly organized lexicons should relate to more vocabulary knowledge4141
42Automaticity Should also lead to faster speed of access and use Fluency4242
43How to Facilitate this Complex Learning for Large Numbers of Words? Incidental LearningExplicit Intentional Learning4343
44Incidental LearningMany practitioners believe that all necessary vocabulary can be learned incidentally simply by being exposed to, and by using, language4444
45Incidental learning does occur in L2 (Reading) Do Things Fall Apart? (Pellicer-Sánchez and Schmitt, 2010)Nigerian language IboSpelling recognition: (2-4)=16% (10-17)= 85%Word class recall: (2-4)=7% (10-17)= 54%Meaning recognition: (2-4)=33% (10-17)= 80%Meaning recall: (2-4)=5% (10-17)= 48%4545
46Incidental learning does occur in L2 (Listening) (Van Zeeland & Schmitt, 2013)4646
47Problem: Incidental learning is limited by amount of exposure It takes at least 8-10 reading exposures to develop an initial form-meaning link and more for meaning recall knowledge (even more for listening)Other word knowledge types (e.g. collocation, register, derivative forms) will likely take many more exposuresMost L2 learners do not read enough to ensure this number of repetitions (Cobb, 2007)SO incidental learning is useful, but not sufficient4747
48Intentional learningVirtually all research shows that intentional learning with an explicit focus on the target linguistic features results in learning that isStrongerMore durableMore consistent among learnersProductive mastery seems to come mainly from productive engagement4848
49Is Knowledge of the Form-Meaning Link Enough? Learning a word might require more than just learning its meaning and formFor receptive use, perhaps a meaning-recall level of mastery might sufficeSee/hear word form and retrieve/recall meaningAll of the other ‘contextual’ word knowledge aspects are already in the discourse/text4949
50Various Kinds of ‘Word Knowledge’ are Learned Differently But for productive use, learners have a concept in their head, but must produce the appropriate lexical formThis requires most (all?) of the ‘contextual’ kinds of word knowledgeThese contextual aspects (e.g. collocation, connotation, register constraints) are more difficult to teach, and probably require large amounts of exposure to acquire incidentally5050
51Different Types of Exposure and Learning Explicit Intentional LearningCan focus on most useful (frequent) wordsStronger learningMainly useful for ‘teachable’ word knowledge aspects like form-meaning, word class, affixesHard to cover enough wordsHard to build in enough recycling5151
52Different Types of Exposure and Learning Incidental LearningGet exposure to a wide variety of wordsA way to get more recyclingProvides context for learning ‘contextual’ types of word knowledgeIncidental learning is useful, but the uptake is slow and inconsistent5252
53Different Types of Exposure and Learning Intentional and incidental learning are complementaryThey add different things to vocabulary knowledgeThey need to be combined in any principled vocabulary program5353
54Formulaic LanguageAll of my discussion up until now discusses single words, lemmas, or familiesThere is a large amount of lexical patterning in languageFormulaic language needs to be brought into the discussion of vocabulary use, acquisition, and pedagogy5454
55What is Formulaic Language? Recurrent multi-word lexical items that have a single meaning or function (Schmitt, 2010)It is a umbrella cover term for a number of formulaic categoriesIdiomsCollocationsPhrasal verbsLexical bundlesLexical phrasesPhrasal expressionsetc
56Learner Use of Formulaic Language Learners don’t use many idiomsLearners do use many high-frequency collocations (nice day)Learners don’t use many lower-frequency but tightly-bound collocations (preconceived notions)
57Learner Use of Formulaic Language But learners often do not use the collocations that they know very appropriatelyInappropriate collocations is a leading problem in learner languageLearners often use words with their correct meanings, but do not understand the correct context of use (collocation, register, frequency)
58Learner Use of Formulaic Language Learners consistently overestimate their comprehension of reading texts that contain formulaic sequences that they either fail to identify or misunderstand, even at high levels of proficiency(Martinez and Murphy, 2011)
59Learner Acquisition of Formulaic Language Boers & Lindstromberg (ARAL 2012) reviewed acquisition research:Learning from exposure requires repetition (frequency)Intentional learning produced better resultsRaising awareness of formulaic language is not a powerful accelerator of learningKnowing the component words makes learning a formulaic sequence easierProviding learning strategies (dictionaries, concordance lines) produced mixed results
60Pedagogical Implications Meunier review (ARAL, 2012)If formulaic sequences are so important:They need to be included in teaching syllabuses and materialsWe can’t assume they will just be learned from exposureThey need to incorporated into language tests to a greater extent
61Pedagogical Implications But what formulaic sequences?In order to incorporate formulaic sequences into their teaching and testing, most practitioners need a list of formulaic sequences to addressBut what criteria to use?
62Formulaic Framework (Martinez, 2013) Infrequent Frequenttake credit take issue take time take place,556(per 100 million – BNC)Transparent Opaquetake credit take time take issue take place
63Formulaic Framework take time (2) take place (1) Transparent Opaque Frequenttake time (2) take place (1)Transparent Opaquetake credit (4) take issue (3)Infrequent
64Formulaic Framework take time (2) TAKE PLACE (1) Transparent Opaque Frequenttake time (2) TAKE PLACE (1)Transparent Opaquetake credit (4) take issue (3)Infrequent
65PHRASE List (Martinez & Schmitt, 2012) PHRASE List (PHRASal Expressions)Some formulaic sequences are very frequent500 phrasal expressions within 5,000 BNC frequency levelBased on same frequency as individual BNC wordsPhrases which are opaque and not easily guessable (1)
66PHRASE List LEAD TO (CAUSE) 13,555 (1st 1,000 frequency level) Excessive smoking can lead to heart disease.HAVE GOT TO (must) 12,270 (2nd 1,000 frequency level)You have got to try this salad.BY THE TIME (when) 3,607 (3rd 1,000 frequency level)By the time dinner started there were none left.
67Integrated Phrase Frequency Spoken Written Written Example List (per 100 million) general general academicRankHAVE TO 83, *** ** * I exercisebecause Ihave to.GOING TO , *** ** x I’m going to(FUTURE) think about it.WAS TO , x *** ** The messagewas to betransmittedworldwide.
68Integrated Phrase Frequency Spoken Written Written Example List (per 100 million) general general academicRankMAKE UP *** ** x You’d betterONE’S MIND make upyour mind.AT WORK x *** *** There werestrange forcesat work.
69Download Research Articles Most Norbert Schmitt (& co-author)publications are available for freedownload at his personal website: