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Q1: Why, given their historical importance, are labour, migration & remittances frequently excluded from analyses of globalisation and IPE? (Sutcliffe)

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Presentation on theme: "Q1: Why, given their historical importance, are labour, migration & remittances frequently excluded from analyses of globalisation and IPE? (Sutcliffe)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Q1: Why, given their historical importance, are labour, migration & remittances frequently excluded from analyses of globalisation and IPE? (Sutcliffe) Q2: Is the current situation unsustainable? Where will the ageing OECD service economies get their labour? Why the political (electoral…) contradictions? (Bhagwati) Q3: What are the implications for global inequalities, poverty & development policies (remittances & impact on both home and host economies, World Bank 11)

3 1. Migration in an historical perspective: 2. Remittances: Definitions, arguments & (forgetting) history 3. Sources & Trends: The problems of measurement: Official statistics. –World Bank $530bn 2012?, LDCs = $406bn, Guesstimates, $700bn? –Unofficial channels: 4. How important are remittances? 5. Policy implications: Home govts: Host govts:

4 1. Migration in an historical perspective: Historical Factor Mobility (World Bank/WDR 09) slavery, indentured, outward European migration, 19-20c; push vs pull factors Post-45, Fordist migration 1990s service sector labour patterns (Sassen).

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8 2. Remittances: Definitions Forgetting history ? (e.g. Eire, Italy, Spain) Sources: World Bank, Ratha – Links, BLE

9 3. Trends The problems of measurement: Official statistics. World Bank 2009 WDR WB $530 bn 2012?, LDCs = $406 bn Guesstimates, $700bn? Goods in kind. Unofficial channels: Money Transfer (eg Western Union), cash, Hawala

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11 3. Trends (cont.) Escape state (banks, neo-liberal), a colossal, small number of transactions Immensely profitable –Citibank-Mexico, advertising campaigns, Difficult to research? Ask your migrant neighbours… –Guardian, – link on plan/moodle

12 4. How important are remittances? Relative to other finance (private capital, aid, FDI)? (See fig.1, World Bank Nov 2012) Source of foreign exchange, crucial means of debt payment, counter-cyclical? Rising and stable (crisis?) source of finance; borrowing & bonds (Latin America) Main recipients: Absolute terms / Remittances as % of GDP (Following slides, WB 2011)

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16 5. Policy implications: Shifting perceptions of: impact on peoples lives within development policy on foreign exchange earnings and reserves, as well as govt finance, Home govts: new realism: Uganda, Kenya, Ghana Bonds, Securitization (Mexico, Turkey, Brazil) India, Incentives: dual nationality (NRI); vote; investment (generational change) bank, tax reforms, Social capital and infrastructure. (Somali tels, Hometown assns)

17 Negative remittances; war, conflict; distribution, gender, elites, social obligation Host govts: reducing costs, regulation (security?), reforming aid. Focus on reduction of costs –since 2005 DfID, WB site The aid industry and diasporas –DfID vs Home Office Towards joined-up govt? –Brain drains and UK labour needs

18 Policy implications? Towards joined-up govt? –Brain drains and UK labour needs –Policy argument: Manage migration to: –i) enhance development; –ii) rethink aid, its agencies and mentalities; –iii) accept migration & remitting as global social security?


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