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II III I I. The Nature of Solutions Solutions

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A. Definitions Solution - Solution - homogeneous mixture Solvent Solvent - present in greater amount Solute Solute - substance being dissolved

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A. Definitions Solute Solute - KMnO 4 Solvent Solvent - H 2 O

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A. Definitions Miscible – when two liquids are soluble in each other (alcohol & water) Immiscible – when two liquids are not soluble in each other (oil & water) Aqueous – dissolved in water

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A. Definitions unsaturated solution - If the amount of solute dissolved is less than the maximum that could be dissolved saturated solution - solution which holds the maximum amount of solute per amount of the solution under the given conditions supersaturated solution - solutions that contain more solute than the usual maximum amount and are unstable.

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Electrolyte – solution that conducts an electric current Non electrolyte – solution that does not conduct an electric current A. Definitions

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B. Solvation NONPOLAR POLAR “Like Dissolves Like”

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B. Solvation Soap/Detergent polar “head” with long nonpolar “tail” dissolves nonpolar grease in polar water

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C. Solubility SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form concentration

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C. Solubility Solubility maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature varies with temp based on a saturated solution

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C. Solubility Solubility Curve shows the dependence of solubility on temperature

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C. Solubility Solids are more soluble at... high temperatures. Gases are more soluble at... low temperatures & high pressures (Henry’s Law). EX: nitrogen narcosis, the “bends,” soda

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D. Increasing the Rate of Solution 1. Agitation 2. Increasing Temperature 3. Increasing Surface Area

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II III I II. Concentration Solutions

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A. Concentration The amount of solute in a solution. Describing Concentration % by mass - medicated creams % by volume- rubbing alcohol molarity - used by chemists molality - used by chemists

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B. % by Mass Remember … % = part x 100 whole % by mass = mass solute x 100 mass solution

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Example What is the % by mass of a solution with 3.6 g of NaCl dissolved in 100.0 g of water? % = (3.6 / 103.6) x 100 = 3.5% NaCl

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C. % by Volume Remember … % = part x 100 whole % by volume = volume solute x 100 volume solution

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Example What is the % by volume of 75.0 ml of ethanol dissolved in 200.0 ml of water? % = (75.0 / 275.0) x 100 = 27.3%

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D. Molarity Molarity = moles of solute/liter of solution Note: it’s liters of solution, not liters of solvent

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Molarity Examples Calculate the molarity of a solution made by dissolving 23.4 g of sodium sulfate in 125 ml of solution 23.4 g Na 2 SO 4 0.165 mol 125 ml 0.125 L M = mol / L M = 0.165mol / 0.125 L M = 1.32 M

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E. Dilution Preparation of a desired solution by adding water to a concentrate. Moles of solute remain the same.

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E. Dilution M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 M 1 = initial molarity V 1 = initial volume M 2 = final molarity V 2 = final volume The units for V 1 & V 2 do not matter as long as they are the same M 1 & M 2 MUST be in molarity

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E. Dilution Problems Suppose we want to make 250 ml of a 0.10 M solution of CuSO4 and we have a stock solution of 1.0 M CuSO4. How many mL of the stock solution do we need? First do the math M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 (0.10M)(250ml) = (1.0)(V 2 ) V 2 = 25 ml

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E. Dilution What volume of 15.8M HNO 3 is required to make 250 mL of a 6.0M solution? GIVEN: M 1 = 15.8M V 1 = ? M 2 = 6.0M V 2 = 250 mL WORK: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 (15.8M) V 1 = (6.0M)(250mL) V 1 = 95 mL of 15.8M HNO 3

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C. Dilution What volume of 15.8M HNO 3 is required to make 250 mL of a 6.0M solution? GIVEN: M 1 = 15.8M V 1 = ? M 2 = 6.0M V 2 = 250 mL WORK: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 (15.8M) V 1 = (6.0M)(250mL) V 1 = 95 mL of 15.8M HNO 3

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