Properties of Matter Science Matter: It’s what the world’s made of.

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Properties of Matter Science

Matter: It’s what the world’s made of.

What do you know about matter? Solids Liquids Gasses Plasma

Solids Solids hold their own shape. Solids have weight. Solids take up space.

Liquids Liquids take the shape of their container. Liquids have weight. Liquids take up space. !

Gases Gases spread out to fill the entire space given. Gases have weight. Gases take up space.

Plasma Lightning is a plasma. Used in fluorescent light bulbs and Neon lights. Plasma is a lot like a gas, but the particles are electrically charged.

STATES of matter? What would it take for matter to move from one state to another?

Energy determines the state!

Particles in Solids: Are packed tightly together Have very little energy

Particles in Liquids: Are loosely packed Have medium energy levels

Particles in Gases: Move freely Have LOTS of energy

Particles in Plasma: Are electrically charged Have EXTREMELY high energy levels

Mixtures may be in different phases Solid? Liquid? Gas? Plasma?

Add or Subtract Energy... When energy is added, particles move faster! When energy is taken away, particles move slower!

What will happen? Why?

Solid + Energy = ? When energy is added to solids, they become liquids! Examples?

Liquid + Energy = ? When energy is added to liquids, they become gases! What examples can you think of?

Changing States There are several names for matter changing states: State change Phase change Physical change

So, did we get something new? Ice cream and melted ice cream? Chocolate and melted chocolate? Ice, water, and water vapor? Steel and molten steel?

Physical Properties A characteristic of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance Ex: shape, color, length, mass, volume, density, odor, texture, states of matter, melting and boiling point

Weight measure the gravitational force exerted on an object. Can be expressed in either newtons and/or pounds. Inertia the tendency of all objects to resist any change in motion. Mass is a measure of inertia.

Measuring Volume Volume = length x width x height (cm³) Look at the meniscus when measuring liquid in a graduated cylinders, beakers, measuring cups, etc... Displacment: measure the liquid Put irregular object in the container Measure liquid Subtract Finish – Start = volume

Pretend you can only feel the object in the bag. Can you guess what it is? Some Physical Properties: round smooth hard about the size of your fist Click here for mystery object. ?

Thermal Density Solubility State Ductility Malleability

Physical Changes Physical Changes do not change the composition. The substance may look different but the identity does not change Grinding Cutting Coloring Dissolving Changes in the state ***Can usually be changed back***

Chemical Properties Any characteristic that gives a substance the ability to undergo a change that results in a new substance Ex: Flammability, Ability to react with: oxygen, electricity, light, water, heat etc

Chemical Properties The ability to change into a new matter with different properties.

Reactivity Nonreactivity Flammability Nonflammability

¿What’s the difference? Physical Properties - Can be measured or observed. Do NOT change the chemical nature of matter properties. Chemical Properties –Describes how something will react. DO change the chemical nature of matter properties

Chemical Changes Chemical Changes are changes in the identity of a substance due to the chemical properties Bubbles Color change (why did it change color?) Production of Heat or Cold Production of Light Production of Smoke Formation of a new substance Cannot usually be changed back

Make a T chart in your spiral Classify each of the following as physical or chemical Gas productionTarnishing SouringExpanding CoolingHeating DigestingRusting DentingSqueezing SawingLight production BurningDissolving StretchingRotting CuttingChange of temperature MeltingFreezing New substanceMixing DryingContracting

Make a T chart in your spiral Classify each of the following as physical or chemical CGas productionCTarnishing CSouringPExpanding PCoolingPHeating CDigestingCRusting PDentingPSqueezing PSawingCLight production CBurningPDissolving PStretchingCRotting PCuttingCChange of temperature PMeltingPFreezing CNew substancePMixing PDryingPContracting

Changes in Energy Endothermic – energy is absorbed from the surroundings – temperature decreases Ex: Ice Melting Exothermic – energy is released into the surroundings – temperature increases water freezing

Classify the Following as Endothermic or Exothermic Burning a match Exothermic Photosynthesis Endothermic Condensation on a window Exothermic

Classify the Following as Endothermic or Exothermic Candle Flame flickering Exothermic Evaporation of water Endothermic Melting an ice cream cone Endothermic

Classify the Following as Endothermic or Exothermic Cooking an Egg Endothermic Freezing dinner Exothermic Baking Bread Endothermic

Classify the Following as Endothermic or Exothermic Exothermic Endothermic

Rate of Reaction Reactions can vary in speed Changes in Size, Concentration and Temperature can change reaction speed Catalysts speed up reactions Inhibitors slow them down

Law of Conservation of Mass Matter cannot be created or destroyed In other words, the mass you end up with is always the same as what you start with Then where does the mass go sometimes? Ex: Wood for a campfire

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