Presentation on theme: "E-Commerce Infrastructures"— Presentation transcript:
1 E-Commerce Infrastructures Internet and Web Technologies
2 Learning Objectives (1/2) Growth, and structure of the InternetPrivate and public networksInternet infrastructureDeveloping applications for the WebLimitations of Web technologies and how to address them
3 Learning Objectives (2/2) Internets, intranets, and extranetsOptions for connecting to the InternetFuture developments: High speed networks, the Semantic Web, mobile networking
4 Technology Overview Technical foundations of e-commerce: Computer networks including the Internet.Computing devices (clients and servers) runningoperating systems, database managers, web servers, application servers, encryption software, security software, multimedia creation and viewing software, and the graphical user interface
5 The InternetHardwareThe hardware that connects the computers togetherThe hardware that connects the networks togetherInternet protocols.Rapid change in these technologies requires businesses to be flexible.
6 Packet-Switching The Internet uses packet switching Files are broken down into packets that are labeled with their origin, sequence, and destination addresses.This fact has very important consequences for both the performance and the security of e-commerce systems
7 RoutingThe programs on these routers use ‘routing algorithms’ that call upon their ‘routing tables’ to determine the best path to send each packet.When packets leave a network to travel on the Internet, they are translated into a standard format by the router.These routers and the telecommunication lines connecting them are referred to as ‘the Internet backbone’.Between seller and customer there are several other actors who have a role to play
9 Internet ProtocolsThe open architecture has four key rules that have contributed to the success of the Internet.Independent networks should not require any internal changes to be connected to the network.Packets that do not arrive at their destinations must be retransmitted from their source network.Router computers act as receive-and-forward devices; they do not retain information about the packets that they handle.No global control exists over the network.
10 Another look at Domain Names Domain names identify who you are (or else establishes your corporate identity).com .biz means you are a business.org means “not for profit”.uk means you are in the UKCNN.com displays your trade nameTrademark law applies (Domain name wars)This has implications for e-commerce with regard to customer assumptions about youIt costs!
11 Web Page DeliveryHypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the set of rules for delivering Web pages over the InternetHTTP uses the client/server modelThe client opens an HTTP session and sends a request to a serverThe server returns an HTTP response message which contains data.After this, they forget about each other – this has very significant implications for Web (and e-commerce) application development.
12 Email Email is also transferred over the Internet. also depends on intermediate systems to move from one place to the otheris send to a specific address (is this the same as knowing it gets to a particular individual?)= Identity (is this true?)is related to corporate entities (via the name system NOT DNS)
13 Web Markup LanguagesWeb pages are marked with tags to indicate the display and formatting of page elementsThey create static pagesUseful for developing UisHTML, XML and the like
15 Programming Languages Scripts embedded in HTML can execute programs on client computers that display those pages in the browserScripts at the server can do complex processing and produce advanced contentLanguage frameworks like J2EE and .NET can be used to develop full blown interactive applications (more on this next time)
16 Persistence Cookies Hidden HTML forms URL re-writing Data stored at the browserProgrammatically controlled by the serverHidden HTML formsURL re-writing
17 Intranets and Extranets An intranet is an interconnected network (or internet – small “i” intended) that does not extend beyond the organization that created itIntranets are an extremely popular and low-cost way to distribute corporate informationAn intranet uses Web browsers and Internet-based protocols (including TCP/IP, FTP, Telnet, HTML, and HTTP) and often includes a firewall
18 Intranets and Extranets Extranets are intranets that have been extended to include specific entities outside the boundaries of the organization (business partners, suppliers, etc.)An extranet can be a public network, a secure (private) network, or a virtual private network (VPN).
19 Intranets and Extranets A public network is any computer or telecommunications network that is available to the publicA private network is a private, leased-line connection between two companies that physically connects their intranets to one anotherA VPN extranet is a network that uses public networks and their protocols to send sensitive data to partners, customers, suppliers, and employees using a system called ‘IP tunneling’ or ‘encapsulation’
20 Internet Connection Options The Internet is a set of interconnected networksLarge firms that provide Internet access to other businesses are called Internet Access Providers (IAPs) or Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
21 Connectivity Overview The most common connection options that ISPs offer to the Internet are telephone, broadband, leased-line, and wirelessBandwidth is the amount of data that can travel through a communication line per unit of timeBandwidth can differ for data traveling to or from the ISP
22 Voice ConnectionsThe most common way to connect to an ISP is through a modem connected to your local telephone service providerPOTS uses existing telephone lines and an analog modem to provide a bandwidth of KbpsISDN uses the DSL protocol suite to offer bandwidths between KbpsSuitable for consumer (implications for design of e-commerce sites)
23 Broadband Connections Connections that operate at speeds of greater than 200 Kbps are called broadband servicesADSL uses the DSL protocol to provide bandwidths between Kbps upstream and Mbps downstreamCable modems provide transmission speeds between 300 Kbps-1 Mbps from the client to the server and a downstream rate as high as 10 MbpsSatellite microwave transmissions handle Internet downloads at speeds around 500 KbpsSuitable for SMEs
24 Leased-Line Connections Large firms can connect to an ISP using higher-bandwidth connections that they can lease from telecommunications carriersA T1 (E1) line operates at Mbps and a T3 (E3) line operates at MbpsExpensive – usually can be afforded only by larger business
26 Wireless ConnectionsMany researchers and business managers see great potential for wireless networks and the devices connected to themThe term m-commerce (mobile commerce) is used to describe the kinds of resources people might want to access using devices that have wireless connectionsCellular vs. WLAN
27 Internet2Internet2 is an experimental test bed for new networking technologies that is separate from the original Internet200 universities and a number of corporations joined together to create this networkIt has achieved bandwidths of 10 GbpsInternet2 promises to be the proving ground for new technologies and applications of those technologies that will eventually find their way to the Internet
28 Grid computing Computing as utility Grid as in the “electric grid” Computation, storage, processesScientific applications currentlyLook at planet-lab.org