What are Open Educational Resources? 1.Educational materials that are made freely available over the internet 2.Available for use and adaptation under an open (creative commons) license 3. Do not provide a qualification or access to University staff
Pioneered by MIT in 2002 Make resources available from all courses OpenCourseWare Consortium Approximately 150 members UK: Nottingham, Open University, Oxford (maths)
Internet as a Public Place Making material available on a publicly accessible web site implies permission to perform activities necessary to view it Placing material on the internet does not imply the granting of permission to adapt, distribute or copy the work for other purposes Misapprehension that the internet is somehow a gateway to the 'Public Domain
Benefits A positive student experience depends on having access to resources. Students and academics will benefit from this move to make more content available. David Sadler, Higher Education Academy Director of Networks Quoted in JISC press releaseJISC press release
Why is Nottingham involved?
Social responsibility Excellence in education Promotional opportunities Internationalisation Cost efficiencies (use and re-use) Change Management
Social Responsibility University 5 year Strategic Plan
Excellence in Education Additional way of accessing learning / widening literature searches / planning
Promotional Opportunities Academic/Module/Course/School/University Can this be proved? New funding environment On-line prospectuses, RSS feeds, links to e-staff profile, school web pages
Cost Efficiencies Save time Reduce costs Free up time to work on other activities
OER Initiatives and Investment William and Flora Hewlett Foundation UNESCO OECD OER Africa HEA and JISC UKOER Programme HEAJISC U-Now, UoN Podcasts, SONET, and ItunesU, UoN Channel, Test Tube and Eduhub on YouTube, XPERT and BERLiN projects at UoN U-NowUoN PodcastsSONET UoN ChannelTest Tube EduhubXPERTBERLiN UoN module framework approach
Open Educational Resources (OERs) Types and Examples Full courses Course/Module Handbooks Lecture notes, presentations, reading lists, syllabus, timetables Lecture notes, presentations, reading lists, syllabus, timetables Tests and assignments Themed course materials Re-usable Learning Objects (RLOs) SONET Simulations SimSHARE Second Life and UoN Audio, Videos, Images AudioVideosImages Open Access journal articles Textbooks
Licensing OERs Licensing is an essential part of OER process: goes beyond making content only viewable to the public It embodies the full ethos of openness Alternative legal frameworks have been devised by Legal Experts in area of new media
What are creative commons licences? Creative Commons is a non-profit organisation – founded 2001 making it easier for people to share their own and build upon the work of others free licenses and other legal tools to mark creative work with the freedom the creator wants it to carry
CC provides free, easy-to-use legal tools (creativecommons.org) Their tools give everyone from individual creators to large companies and institutions a simple, standardised way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work. The Creative Commons licenses enable people to easily change their copyright terms from the default of all rights reserved to some rights reserved.
CC Licenses work alongside copyright Creative Commons licenses are not an alternative to copyright. They work alongside copyright, so you can modify your copyright terms to best suit your needs.
CC have a no rights reserved option For those creators wishing to opt out of the copyright altogether, Creative Commons helps them do so by providing tools that allow you to place your work as squarely as possible within the public domain a no rights reserved alternative to copyright.
Exponential Growth 2001 Creative Commons founded Approximately 1 million licenses in use Estimated 4.7 million licensed works by the end of the year Estimated 20 million works.
Exponential Growth 2006 Estimated 50 million licensed works Estimated 90 million licensed works Estimated 130 million CC licensed works. New Nine Inch Nails albumNew Nine Inch Nails album released under CC Estimated 350 million CC licensed works. Wikipedia migratesWikipedia migrates to CC Attribution- ShareAlike as its main content license
Creative Commons Licence options Attribution ShareAlike Non Commercial Non-Derivative Versions Regionalised or Unported Six Licences Attribution-Non-Commercial- Share Alike 2.0 UK:England and WalesAttribution-Non-Commercial- Share Alike 2.0 UK:England and Wales (BY-NC-SA)
Activities tools and services
School based Module handbook (powerful open resources) Schools identifying preferred methods 25% schools have engaged Target of 3600 credits by 2015
OER Discoverability … finding materials and resources you can use now Search Engines OER Repositories Subject Curators, Commons Institutional Repositories Images, Videos & Podcasts Learning Portals, Platforms & Networks Tips
OER Discoverability – Institutional Repositories UKOER Projects – full list of participants UKOER Projects U-Now – Nottingham U-Now Open Exeter Oxford OpenSpires or Mathematics OpenCourseWare OpenSpiresMathematics OpenCourseWare OTTER - Leicester OTTER Open University OpenLearn or LORO – Languages OpenLearnLORO University of Catalonia MIT JHBS - Public Health Utah State OCW Carnegie Mellon
OER Discoverability- Subject Specific Curators UKOER Projects - full list of participants UKOER Projects Humbox - Humanities Humbox True Project – Economics True Project Gees project - Climate Change Gees project (for resources search JorumOPEN for GEESOER) National Science Digital Library (NSDL) National Science Digital Library Engineering Pathway SMETE Digital Library – Science, Maths, Eng, Technology SMETE Digital Library BiosciEdNet (Ben) BiosciEdNet DLESE – Earth System Education DLESE– eLangdell – Education commons for law schools eLangdell
OER Discoverability - Gateways, Portals, Platforms & Networks Open University LabSpace Open Courseware Consortium (OCWC) Open Courseware Consortium list of members OER Commons Connexions Temoa Owl Institute (Hogwarts ) Owl Institute Creative Commons
OER Discoverability - Gateways, Portals, Platforms & Networks Curriki: US initiative Curriki Wikiversity Educommons – COSL, Utah State University Content Management System EducommonsCOSL Content Directories SlideShare AuthorSTREAM Scribd Other s lide and presentation sharing sites Other s lide and presentation sharing sites
OER Discoverability – General OER Repositories JorumOpen – UK initiative JorumOpen Jorum userguidesuserguides MERLOT – US initiative MERLOT LORN – Australian Flexible Learning Framework LORN Globe Ariadne Learning Resource Exchange for SchoolsLearning Resource Exchange for Schools (European Schoolnet)
OER Discoverability – Search Engines XPERT DiscoverED Google – advanced search Google Yahoo – advanced search Yahoo Free Learning (Google Search) Free Learning OER Commons (Google Search) University Learning=OCW=OER=Free (Customised Google Search) University Learning=OCW=OER=Free OCWfinder – COSL OCWfinderCOSL
Discoverability – Summary Many sources for finding OERS Some resources will appear in several places for maximum exposure UKOER useful tag when searching search engines like JorumOpen, XPERT, DiscoverED Differences exist between repositories, collaboration and learning platforms and search engines
Differences Degrees of openness or freedom Use for own research and study Copy once for personal use Educational use only Use within own server or university walls Use by subscribers only – eg some image sources Non Commercial v commercial use Cant use in web/online type publication Closed v open format types Some sites offer a mix of access & avenues for contribution, collaboration, remixing
Differences Logins/Registration often on sites. Always check licenses attached to resources – can vary too Some Peer Reviewed Coverage – institutional, national, international, subject specific, for particular audience Different searching options Method of contribution varies Open CourseWare, Reusable Learning Objects, Wiki artefacts, Powerpoint, Document etc
Exploration Activity One Explore search engine or repository of choice Look at resources, types and formats available Download and consider how you might use, customise or remix a resource for your own teaching Try and find copyright holder information, licensing and attribution details. Consider how you might attribute the resource appropriately
OER Discoverability – Images FlickrCC or via Flickr FlickrCCFlickr Google Images Welcome images Wikimedia Commons or here too Wikimedia Commons here Creative Commons Search Creative Commons Search Fromoldbooks.org Freedigitalphotos.net FreePhotosBank UoN Image bank University of Minnesota Image bank University of Minnesota Image bank OpenClipArt Library Microsoft ClipArt Microsoft Office Online Cadyou Dryicons OERImages bookmark for more…….. OERImages bookmark
OER Discoverability – Images XPERT Media Search Searches media asserted by third parties to be either in the public domain, licensed under Creative Commons or GNL licence Embeds relevant licence, copyright details in team blog posts or student blogs, powerpoint, Xerte toolkits etc team blog posts student blogs Xerte toolkits
OER Discoverability – Audio & Video UoN Podcasts OpenSpires ITunes and ITunesU ITunesITunesU YouTube Eduhub UoN video channel on YouTube UoN video channel British Universities File and Video Council (BVFVC) British Universities File and Video Council
Discoverability Tips – Audio & Video BUFVC TV and radio recordings licensed for web not necessarily Creative Commons BUFVC support around copyright and licensing of moving picture resources YouTube – beware as not all has been made publicly available legitimately For more information see this tutorial exercise and associated videotutorial exercise
Discoverability Tips - Images Placing something on the internet for public access is not the same as permitting online published content to be copied, adapted or republished in an OER Licenses attached to material must be read carefully and complied with – different requirements Degrees of freedom Beware licenses granting permission for educational purposes – may restrict use within a closed environment only.
Discoverability Tips - Images Locating copyright free images Sites claiming to provide copyright free images almost always include a disclaimer regarding copyright status of images contained on site No guarantee supplier is copyright owner Subscription based sites unlikely to permit redistribution within OER which will be accessed by non subscribers
Discoverability Tips - Images No License attached? Does the publisher own the copyright? – Do not assume this! Do you have the right to (re)use it in the same way within an OER? Who is the copyright holder? Some websites do not acknowledge third party licensed images – Which license applies? Copyright protected images may have been included without permission – This is an infringement which will lead to further infringement if copied
OER Use and Re-use Citing and Referencing Attribution Localising & Customising OERs In Action
OER Re-Use Localisation or Customisation Many sites offer options and facilities for download Adapting, modifying or remixing OERs to meet local teaching and learning needs Wider than changing language or swapping photos Adapt pedagogy, politics, geography, level, discipline
OER Use in Action Case Studies "Bye the Book: My year of teaching environmental science without a textbook" "Bye the Book: My year of teaching environmental science without a textbook" Burn and Grade Guru – student produced OERs BurnGrade Guru Students and OER – student collaborations and OERs in the classroom Students and OER Foundations in evidence based practice – includes links to SONET RLOs Foundations in evidence based practice
OER Use in Action Case Studies Radio feedback – in Spain Radio feedback U-Now Visitor TrendsVisitor Trends Chris Palmer Evidence Based Practice…Evidence Based Practice OER Africa – Kenyatta University and other projectsKenyatta University other projects University of Third Age and OU Alliance Alliance
OER Use in Action Case Studies Schoox.com: Greek initiative Schoox.com Peoples-uni: UK initiative, capacity building in public health Peoples-uni University of the People – US initiative University of the People An experiment? Peer to Peer University (P2PU) OER University – Canadian, NZ, Australian University initiative OER University–
OER Use in Action Case Studies Reusable Learning Objects in Health Care Education in Interprofessional E-Learning and Collaborative Work: Practices and Technologies. Interprofessional E-Learning and Collaborative Work: Practices and Technologies Nursing students – empirical evidence of enhanced learning and re-use Reusable learning objects - Chemistry Addressing difficult subjects Workshop delivery or self study routes Students recommend use to other students In press: British Journal of Educational Technology
OER Use in Action Case Studies Facilitating students use of existing mechanics resources Facilitating students use of existing mechanics resources Addressing high failure rates 1 st year UG FlexBooks - Reducing cost of textbooks for K-12 schools FlexBooksK-12 OER stories – UNESCO OER stories OER case studies – Creative Commons OER case studies Do you have any of your own to share?
Creating OERS Top Tips Publishing Using Quotations Incorporating images Tools and Methods
OER Creation Repurpose Create from new Use an e-learning development tool Xerte Online Toolkits – Demo Xerte Online Toolkits Demo Exe, Glowmaker Educommons Wikieducator – tutorial Wikieducatortutorial Wikiversity Creating Open Educational Resources. OER produced by Open University Creating Open Educational Resources
OER Creation What do you think the issues are?
OER Creation - General Points Easier to avoid issues by creating from new and designing in openness from the beginning. Repurposing material/content you have already will need fully sanitising – data protection, fully sourced and copyright cleared 3 rd party material Material you have repurposed for inclusion on VLE will need further repurposing for open publication
OER Creation - Using 3 rd Party Materials ( Images, Charts, Graphs, Tables, Maps, Quotes…) Onus on institution to ensure images used have been lawfully included Providing source information to avoid plagiarism is not enough Lawful inclusion means using own, copyright free, copyright expired, copyright cleared, copyright licensed (with publisher agreement as appropriate) material Quoting from others fair dealing - insubstantial use
OER Creation - Using 3 rd Party Materials Quotations – insubstantial use No specific exemption in copyright, but case law suggests that insubstantial use is ok, if: Less than 400 words of continuous text from a book. Less than 800 words of discontinuous text from a book, providing no part is more than 300 words (remember this is qualitative as well as quantitative – so quoting one line giving away the murderer from a whodunnit book would very likely be viewed as copying a substantial part of the work).
OER Publishing Submit to Learning Team for inclusion in U-NowU-Now Exposure to Jorum Open, XPERT, OCW, OER Commons Statistics on number of hits (in U-Now) Greater changes of discoverability Publish materials to web, on wiki, blog, slideshare and Licence appropriately Submit to OER Commons Submit to OpenLearn If created by Xerte Online Toolkits select to publish openly to XPERT
OER Publishing Licence Incompatibility License incompatibility means: content that is licensed under a particular license cannot be combined with content licensed under certain other licenses a user might not be able to combine OER that come from different sources, even though both are "Open" Educational Resources. authors publishing under an open licence to make them as widely accessible and as easily adaptable as possible may occasionally be thwarted in their aim See the UNESCO licence incompatibility table for more infolicence incompatibility table
OER Courses and Tutorials Creating Open Educational Resources by the Open University Creating Open Educational Resources OER Commons Wiki Introduction to OER by Utah State University Introduction to OER Introduction to Open Educational Resources by Connexions Introduction to Open Educational Resources UNESCO OER Toolkit Integrating OER into the Classroom Internet for Image Searching OERWorkshops bookmark for others OERWorkshops
Exploration Activities Introduction to European Politics for Language Students, work through the pack: Ensure that the pack is appropriate for release as an OER Add correct attribution where appropriate/replace with creative commons or public domain Free time to work on you own resources/search
References Atkins, D.E., Seely Brown, J. & Hammond, A.L., (2007). A review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) movement: Achievements, challenges and new opportunities. Report to The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Available at: open-educational-resources-oer-movement_final.pdf Beggan, A., (2010). Opening up: Staff attitudes to open learning. Report to JISC UKOER Project. Available at: URL:http://unow.nottingham.ac.uk/focus_groups.pdf> URL:http://unow.nottingham.ac.uk/focus_groups.pdf Cormier, D., (2009). Open Educational Resources: The implications for educational development (SEDA). Available at: implications-for-educational-development-seda/ Tapscott, D. & Williams, A, D. (2010). Innovating the 21 st Century University: Its time!. Educause Review Jan/Feb, p Available at:
Links to Documentation University of Nottingham Staff Focus Groups University of Nottingham Staff Survey OER Africa Feedback on what makes an effective resource and repository The BERLiN Project Final Report This work pack will be made available under creative commons licence in the near future and the location will be sent to you once it has been published