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Lx I The sounds of German Lecture 6 – Week 8 I. Connected speech – co- articulation and assimilation II. Phonological rules revisited.

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Presentation on theme: "Lx I The sounds of German Lecture 6 – Week 8 I. Connected speech – co- articulation and assimilation II. Phonological rules revisited."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lx I The sounds of German Lecture 6 – Week 8 I. Connected speech – co- articulation and assimilation II. Phonological rules revisited

2 I.Co-articulation and assimilation In connected fluent speech, the articulators take short-cuts -By leaving phonemes out altogether (e.g. und ein > / ʊ n/ - consonant /t/ deleted (deletion, Tilgung; also called elision) - By reducing phonemes to ones which take less articulatory effort, such as more central vowels (e.g. ein > /ən/) (reduction)

3 I.Co-articulation and assimilation or …. by articulating sounds in a way which makes the transition to/ from another sound easier = assimilation e.g. Lippen [l ɪ pm] (n assimilates to the previous p)

4 Connected speech i.e not words pronounced in isolation, but in context So we will often talk about changes to pronunciation at the boundaries … …. between words, or …. between morphemes, e.g. un+gern, halt+bar, frag+st (where + indicates a morpheme boundary) remember a morpheme is the smallest unit of language that can carry meaning (even if it is just grammatical meaning.

5 Phonetics or phonology? There are two ways of looking at processes like these. We view them as being at the level of phonetic detail, and so transcribe them in square brackets, like [ ] But we might argue that, since (in many cases, at least) they can be described by regular phonological rules, we are still dealing with phonology, and so might want to transcribe in between slashes / /

6 (By the way …) in between slashes this is a good example of assimilation in English speech: In between > [ ɪ mbətwi:n]

7 Phonetics or phonology? For our purposes, we will consider that co- articulatory effects occur at the level of phonetics. This particularly makes sense when some of the processes result in sounds which we have not met as phonemes in German in their own right, as in [ ɱ ] (=labiodental nasal) Still, we will try and describe some of these processes using phonological rules.

8 NB in the exam … You will be asked to provide a phonemic transcription, i.e. at the level of phonology, using phonemes, transcribed between / / Youll also be asked to comment on how the phonology might be different if the speakers were speaking rapidly / conversationally – here you will need to comment on the level of phonetic detail

9 I.Co-articulation and assimilation Assimiliation … of place of manner of voicing

10 Assimilation of place in Bonn > / ɪ mb ɔ n/ (alveolar to labial) of manner obvious > / ɔ vv/ …(labial stop to fricative) of voicing hat sie > /hatsi:/ (or /z/) o

11 Assimilation …. partial: e.g. Altbau > /lpb/ (assimilation of place but not of voice) Becomes more similar to the sound with which is assimilates Total: e.g. mit Partykleid > /m ɪ pp/ Becomes identical to the sound to which it assimilates

12 Assimilation …. can occur in either direction: either in anticipation of a following sound: mit Partykleid > /m ɪ pp/ = anticipatory (regressive effect) or a hangover after another sound has already been pronounced: Leben /le:bm/ = perseverative (progressive effect)

13 1. Common assimilation of place in German 1. anticipatory (regressive) /t/ > /p/ before labial stops /p,b,m/ geht mit > /ge:pm ɪ t/ mit Papa > / m ɪ ppap ɑ / mit Mama > /mipmam ɑ /

14 Common assimilation of place in German 1. anticipatory (regressive) /t/ > /k/ before oral velar stops /k, g/ hat kein > hakka ɪ n/ (total) isst gern > / ɪ skg ɛɐ n/ (partial)

15 Common assimilation of place in German 1. anticipatory (regressive) /n/ > /m/ before nasal stops /p, b, m/ in Mai > / ɪ mma ɪ / (total) mein Peter > /m a ɪ mpe:t ɐ / > (partial) kann bieten > /kambi:tən/ (partial)

16 Common assimilation of place in German 1. anticipatory (regressive) /n/ > /m/ before nasal stops /p, b, m/ in Mai > / ɪ mma ɪ / (total) mein Peter > /m a ɪ mpe:t ɐ / > (partial) kann bieten > /kambi:tən/ (partial) Note case distinctions can disappear: (-en, -em) meinen Bruder > /ma ɪ nəm bru:d ɐ /

17 Common assimilation of place in German 1. anticipatory (regressive) /n/ > /ŋ/ before oral velar stops /k, g/ in kein > ɪ ŋ ka ɪ n/ in gut > / ɪ ŋgu:t/

18 Common assimilation of place in German 2. perseverative (progressive) /n/ > / ŋ/ after /k,g/ sagen, fragen, liegende, Haken / (with deletion of schwa) /gŋ/

19 Common assimilation of place in German 2. perseverative (progressive) and /n/ > /m/ after /p, b/, (often where a /ə/ has been elided: Leben > /le:bm/ Wappen > /vapm/

20 Common assimilation of place in German all of the above are normal in conversation also very possible in formal style

21 Common assimilation of place in German In relaxed conversational style …: regressive (anticipatory) assimilation /n/ and /m/ > [ ɱ ] (=labiodental nasal) before /f,v/ in Wien > [ ɪ ɱ vi:n] ein Freund > [ə ɱ fro ɪ nt] Im Verein am schönsten > [ ɪɱ v …] NB Both within words and across word boundaries

22 Common assimilation of place in German In relaxed conversational style …: regressive (anticipatory) assimilation /s/ > // before / / or / Ʒ / Das Spiel > /da pi:l/ Des Journalisten > /d ɛ Ʒ …/ NB not before /j/ as in English this year /…j…/

23 2. Common assimilation of manner in German Before or after nasals, oral stops may become assimilated to the homorganic nasal progressive: within words and across word boundaries: zum Beispiel /mb/ > /mm/ Bundestag /nd/ > /nn/ ungern /ŋg/ > /ŋŋ/

24 Common assimilation of manner in German Before or after nasals, oral stops may become assimilated to the homorganic nasal regressive: within words only especially where loss of ə produces a syllabic nasal in unstressed syllables haben >[h ɑ :bm] > [ h ɑ :mm] (b>m) Magnet: /magne:t/ > [maŋne:t] (g>ŋ)

25 Common assimilation of manner in German what about e.g.s like fanden (Hall, p. 143) fanden > /fandn/ > /fann/ ? Hall describes these as assimilations too, but if it were just that, we would end up with /fannn/ so there is something else going on here too – the reduction of geminates (double consonants) to singles … more later

26 Common assimilation of manner in German These assimilations of manner are likely in conversation or in rapid speech, but are less likely in formal speech

27 3. Voicing and devoicing Devoicing: voiceless stop followed by voiced stop Voiceless fricative or /z/ (i.e. b, d, g, z) Devoicing of second element is likely in conversation: Habsburg [hapsb ʊɐ k] (little o beneath indicates devoiced) o

28 3. Voicing and devoicing Devoicing: Both within words, and at word boundaries or morpheme boundaries Habsburg [hapsb ʊɐ k] (little o beneath indicates devoiced) Das Symbol /sz/ > [ss] o

29 3. Voicing and devoicing Devoicing: After voiceless fricatives, the voiced phonemes /j, v, l, r/ can also become (partially devoiced) auf Jahr und Tag […fj…] Das Wasser [dasvas ɐ ] Das Recht [dasr ɛ çt] Das Licht [dasl ɪ çt] o o o o

30 3. Voicing and devoicing Vowels can also become devoiced: e.g between voiceless stops, in both German and English Article Artikel

31 3. Voicing … Voicing In unstressed syllables, voiceless fricatives may become voiced: Hat er /t/ > [d] Mach ich /x/ > [γ] Darf ich /f/ > [v]

32 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) In German it affects: /ə/ /t/ Geminate (double) consonants

33 Loss of nasals /ə/ before nasals in unstressed syllables (e.g. –en) In very careful speech, we might hear: /ən/, - but usually / ə/ is deleted, and we hear syllabic /n/ in essen, hoffen, reisen …. Cf. English sudden, happen

34 Loss of nasals /ə/ before nasals in unstressed syllables (e.g. –en) In very careful speech, we might hear: /ən/, - but usually / ə/ is deleted, and we hear syllabic /n/ in essen, hoffen, reisen …. Word-finally, as in the above examples Or preceding a consonant: trinkende, lebende …

35 Remember the syllabic [n] may then undergo assimilation … Always: assimilation of syllabic n to ŋ - After a velar stop (/k,g/): fragen, sagen, Haken: -[gŋ], [k ŋ] Frequent in normal speech: assimilation of syllabic n to m - After a bilabial stop /m, p/ : leben, neben, Mappen [bm], [pm]

36 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) Elision of final / ə/ at end of 1 st person singular : ich hab, ich mach …. (/hap, max/) (not possible after nasals: *zeichn ich)

37 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) Elision of final / ə/ at end of 1 st person singular : ich hab, ich mach …. (/hap, max/) (not possible after nasals: *zeichn ich) also 1 st person preterite tense followed by subject: wollt ich (not ich wollt) (not possible where the ending is –ete) Eg. *arbeitet ich

38 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) NB these deletions do not occur with the identical 3 rd person preterite endings: wollte er, sagte er *wollt er, *sagt er Clearly this type of deletion is not just an effect of rapid speech, there is a phonological rule that interacts with the morphology of the language

39 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) Deletion of /t/ 1. after /n/ or /l/ and before /s/ der Tanz: /tants/ > /tans/ ganz: /gants/ > /gans/ (becomes a homonym with Gans) du hältst: /h ɛ ltst/ > /h ɛ lst/

40 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) Deletion of /t/ 2. In syllable clusters of the pattern fricative – t – l (e.g. /stl, ftl, çtl, xtl/) geistlich > /sl/ schriftlich > /fl/ beachtlich > /xl/

41 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) Deletion of /t/ 3. In clusters with sibilants (/s, /) loszulassen = /sts/ > /ss/ du hast zu viel = /stts/ > /sts/ jetzt zu … = /tstts/ > /tss/

42 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) All such deletions of /t/ are a mark of conversational style

43 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) All such deletions of /t/ are a mark of conversational style (cf. also deletion of /t/ in nicht in north German pronunciations) Nicht /n ɪ çt/ > /n ɪ ç/ (Also jetzt, sonst … cf. weak forms below)

44 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) Reduction of double consonants to singles Recall from earlier: fanden > /fandn/ > /fannn/ > /fann/ (a case of total assimilation of manner (/d/ > /n/), resulting in triple consonant, reduced to two)

45 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) More commonly, 2 consonants reduced to one by deletion of one: nennen: /n ɛ nn/ > /n ɛ n/ Or, again via assimilation first: kommen > /k ɔ mm/ > /k ɔ m/ singen > /z ɪ ŋŋ/ > / z ɪ ŋ/

46 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) Can also be in middle of a word: annehmen > /ane:mm/

47 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) NB if the double consonants … ARE NOT at the end of a word and IF THEY IMMEDIATELY FOLLOW the word stress, then reduction to a single consonant is not possible: /hat ka ɪ n/ > /hakka ɪ n/ Stress on hat (marked by ), so no reduction of /kk/ possible (contrast /hat ka ɪ n/ > /haka ɪ n/

48 II. Elision (deletion, Tilgung) Vocalic r, / ɐ /, is often elided in conversation after long ɑ :, e.g Fahrt /f ɑ : ɐ t /> /f ɑ :t

49 III. More reductions: vowels Consider den /de:n/ 1. [den] (shortened vowel) 2. [d ɛ n] (tense vowel replaced by lax vowel) 3. [dən] (vowel reduced to schwa) 4. [dn] (vowel deleted, syllabic n)

50 III. Vowel reductions 1. (shortening long vowel) frequent with all unstressed long vowels, e.g. Gabi /g ɑ :bi:/ > /g ɑ :bi/ Universum /u:ni:v ɛɐ s ʊ m/ > /u:niv ɛɐ z ʊ m/

51 III. Vowel reductions The remaining steps in vowel reduction … …. 2. [d ɛ n] (tense vowel replaced by lax vowel) 3. [dən] (vowel reduced to schwa) 4. [dn] (vowel deleted, syllabic n) … most common in high-frequency function words like articles

52 IV. weak forms See Hall, p for a list of weak forms assimilation and or reduction in high- frequency words, esp. : articles: der, die, den, einem, einen … Pronouns: du, er, ihm, ihrem …. auxiliary verbs: bist, ist, … Prepositions: zu, für, nach … Conjunctions: und, oder … some adverbs: schon, nur, mehr, sonst

53 Further reductions Weve already noted that a glottal stop ʔ can be omitted before unstressed vowels, and may even be omitted before some stressed ones in relaxed conversation: In Essen / ʔɪ n ʔɛ sən/ most formal / ɪ n ʔɛ sn/ / ɪ n ɛ sn/ least formal

54 Exercise: Try applying the stages of reduction and assimilation to the words listed here and see what weak forms emerge – then check with the list in Hall, p.150ff. articles: der, die, den, einem, einen … Pronouns: du, er, ihm, ihrem …. auxiliary verbs: bist, ist, … Prepositions: zu, für, nach … Conjunctions: und, oder … some adverbs: schon, nur, mehr, sonst

55 More on phonological rules Remember we have seen rules like this: A fricative or stop becomes voiceless when it is followed by a syllable boundary [+obstruent] [ - stimmhaft] / __ ] σ i.e. Auslautverhärtung

56 More on phonological rules We can also use rules to describe some of processes we have been talking about today … Can you write a simple rule to express this type of assimilation: in Bonn > / ɪ mb ɔ n/ And this deletion? kommen > /k ɔ mm/ > /k ɔ m/ NB use ]* and ]σ for word boundary and syllable boundary

57 More on phonological rules in Bonn > / ɪ mb ɔ n/ /n/ > /m/ / _____ ] σ /b/ /m/ /p/ Or [+nasal > [+labial] / _____ ] σ [+labial] + koronal] NB this also allows for assimilation of /n/ to /m/ before any labial stop.

58 More on phonological rules kommen > /k ɔ mm/ > /k ɔ m/ 1./ə/ > 0 / _n]* where unstressed 2./n/ > /m/ / m_ ]* (or [+nas, +kor] > [+lab.] / [+nas, +lab] ___ ]*) And finally … 3. /m/ > 0 /___m ]* (where ]* indicates a word boundary)


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