Presentation on theme: "Understanding Global Politics: Feminist Approaches"— Presentation transcript:
1Understanding Global Politics: Feminist Approaches Good girls, bad girls in IR?
2Feminist International Relations Theory Feminist IR taking off in late 1980sInfluenced by postmodernist theoriesNote stronger longer links between feminism and postcolonial studiesFeminist IR scholarship marked in Millennium special issues arising from Feminist IR conferences: 1988, 1998, 2008
3Key Feminist IR approaches Liberal feminismSocialist/marxist/critical feminismConstructivist feminismRadical feminismPostmodernist/poststructuralist feminismPostcolonial feminism
4Key feminist IR textsCynthia Enloe. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International PoliticsJean Bethke Elshtain. Women and WarAnn Tickner. Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global SecurityV. Spike Peterson and Anne Sisson Runyan. Global Gender Issues: Dilemma in World Politics. 1993Christine Sylvester. Feminist Theory and International Relations in a Postmodern EraSandra Whitworth. Feminism and International Relations. 1994Jill Steans. Gender and International Relations: An IntroductionCynthia Enloe. Does Khaki Become You? The Militarization of Women’s LivesBetty Reardon. Sexism and the War SystemBirgit Brock–Utne. Educating for Peace: A Feminist PerspectiveJean Bethke Elshtain. Women and WarRuth Roach Pierson, ed. Women and Peace: Theoretical, Historical and Practical PerspectivesCynthia Enloe. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International PoliticsJudith Hicks Stiehm. Arms and the Enlisted WomanAdrienne Harris and Ynestra King, eds. Rocking the Ship of State: Toward a Feminist Peace PoliticsBirgit Brock–Utne. Feminist Perspective on Peace and Peace EducationSara Ruddick. Maternal Thinking: Towards a Politics of PeaceJean Bethke Elshtain and Sheila Tobias, eds. Women, Militarism, and War: Essays in History, Politics, and Social TheoryRebecca Grant and Kathleen Newland, eds. Gender and International Relations. [1989 journal issue] 1991.V. Spike Peterson, ed. Gendered States: Feminist (Re) Visions of International Relations TheoryAnn Tickner. Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global SecurityCynthia Enloe. The Morning After: Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold WarV. Spike Peterson and Anne Sisson Runyan. Global Gender Issues: Dilemma in World PoliticsBetty Reardon. Women and Peace: Feminist Visions of Global SecurityChristine Sylvester. Feminist Theory and International Relations in a Postmodern EraSandra Whitworth. Feminism and International RelationsPeter Beckman and Francine D’Amico, eds. Women, Gender, and World PoliticsFrancine D’Amico and Peter Beckman, eds. Women in World PoliticsJan Pettman. Worlding Women: A Feminist International PoliticsJudith Hicks Stiehm, ed. It’s Our Military, Too! 1996.Jill Steans. Gender and International Relations: An IntroductionLois Ann Lorentzen and Jennifer Turpin, eds. The Women and War Reader
5Women, War and Peace Women for war or for peace Aristophanes’ play LysistrataFirst feminist IR text?
6Public man, private woman ‘So it has been since the days of Hecuba, and of Hector, Tamer of horses: inside the gates, the women with streaming hair and uplifted hands offering prayers, watching the world’s combat from afar, filling their long, empty days with memories and fears; outside, the men in fierce struggle with things divine and human, quenching memory in the stronger light of purpose, losing the sense of dread and even of wounds in the hurrying ardour of action (Eliot, The Mill on the Floss 1996: 405).’See Jean Elshtain’s Public Man, Private Woman, 1981
7Feminist IR scholarship Not just academic approach?· “feminism , unlike non-feminist postmodernism, is not merely a contemporary development in the sociology of knowledge, but is embedded in a rich and varied history of women’s struggle and women theorising from the experience of struggle” (True 1996: 211)
8Concept of gender· “gender refers to the asymmetrical social constructs of masculinity and femininity as opposed to ostensibly ‘biological’ male-female differences ...; the hegemonic western brand of masculinity is associated with autonomy, sovereignty, the capacity for reason and objectivity, universalism and men, whereas the dominant notion of femininity is associated with the absence or lack of these characteristics” (True 2001: 236)
9Concept of gender as challenge to traditional IR Empirical-ontological challenge of mainstream IRMainstream IR approaches have excluded women’s lives and experiences from their field of enquiryFeminist interest in women’s place in IRgendered structures of IOs – women marginal in international security or economic decision-makingBut women victims of war and IPEwomen’s role in development;flexible female labour in IPEWomen in forced prostitution & traffickingthrough processes of commodification· mainstream IR approaches have excluded women’s lives and experiences from their field of enquiry;· focus on women’s place in IR: e.g. role of women in development; role of flexible female labour in states’ strategy to remain competitive in the global economy;· focus on gendered structures of International Organisations: “IOs more so even than national decision-making institutions are dominated by elite men. They privilege priorities such as global economic growth, competition and enterprise over domestic societal wellbeing and human development” (True 2001: 242);· extension of liberal capitalism towards Central and Eastern Europe has intensified employment discrimination against women and also included the spread of forced prostitution through processes of commodification;· uncovering of women’s work and role in history through tracing back dominant male approaches to their origins and analysing which feminist approaches were pushed aside when and why;
10Bringing women and their perspectives into IR “Bringing women’s lives into view through gender-sensitive research has policy-relevant and material effects. Indeed, feminists argue that only when women are recognised as fundamental players in economic and political processes will they share an equal role in societal decision making” (True 2001: 247).
11Gender as constitutive foundation of knowledge is exposed as stemming from the standpoint of men, not from objective, value-free and universal criteriakey IR concepts are related back to a male standpoint and then redefined with the help of a feminist standpoint:“through a feminist lens, the traditional generic actors and units of analysis in IR, statesmen and nation-states in the context of an international system, are revealed as social constructions based on a gender-specific, masculine mode of being and knowing” (True 2001)
12Gendered constructsman is understood as competitive, rational, individualistic and violent, which leads to the conceptualisation of a war of all against all within international anarchyfeminism needs to develop an alternative understanding to include production and reproduction and the importance of human relationships
13Gendered statenot a coherent actor, but idealised vision of Western manhoodrelates back to separation between private and public in Athenian state formprivate realm as the international realm is characterised by anarchy, which needs to be brought under controlassumption that the state is an internal order masks the subjection and control of women by menchallenge of constructed boundaries between the domestic and international and the private and public spheres that distinguish legitimate from illegitimate force
14Gender as Transformative Feminist epistemologyseeks to deconstruction of positivist social science as based on male-masculine epistemologies:“the positive pursuit of objectivity…is dependent upon particular masculine subjectivities” (True 2001: 257)gender is concerned with the politics of knowledge and the related power dimensionthe very existence of the category “gender” has marginalised females through putting women into a subordinate groupa feminist perspective seeks to contextualise theoretical claims, theorise relationships, situate political struggles and homestead subjectivities (True, 2001: 262)Further notesattempt to deconstruct, historicise gender as an analytical device, considered to have strengthened masculine dominance through its dichotomy between masculinity and femininity; consequently, women’s movements must be open to internal diversity and differences, rather than emphasising a common identity as females;· different feminist epistemology, which rejects “knowing” from fixed ontological positions and objective, positivist epistemologies: “rather, a feminist perspective seeks to contextualise theoretical claims, theorise relationships, situate political struggles and homestead subjectivities on personal, local, national, transnational, regional, and global levels, with the knowledge that these are interconnected” (True 2001: 262);
15Robert Keohane’s engagement with feminist IR theory Separation of feminist approaches into three groups:feminist standpoint theories: positive contribution in that they highlight our masculine conceptualisation of key IR concepts and, with the help of a feminist redefinition of these concepts, further our understanding of world politicsfeminist empiricism: good in that it focuses on women’s role in IR, but theoretically naïve, because by taking IR concepts as their starting point of investigation without questioning them
16Robert Keohane’s engagement with feminist IR theory Post-modern feminism:dangerous, dead-end approach, which should not be pursued: problem that it rejects a “scientific”, positivist epistemology“agreement on epistemological essentials constitutes a valuable scientific asset that should not be discarded lightly” (Keohane 1989: 249)“We will only ‘understand’ each other if IR scholars are open to the important questions that feminist theories raise, and if feminists are willing to formulate their hypotheses in ways that are testable – and falsifiable- with evidence” (Keohane 1998: 197);
17Cynthia Weber’s ‘Good Girls, Little Girls, Bad Girls’ article Cynthia Weber’s criticism of KeohaneGeneral point:Keohane mutilates rich, feminist IR scholarship by cutting the body into several parts and erecting new boundaries:“Keohane’s text, having performed a textual mutilation of the feminist body, is in a sense ‘criminal’. It stands as evidence of its author’s attempted murder of the feminist body” (Weber 1994: 348)
18Cynthia Weber’s ‘Good Girls, Little Girls, Bad Girls’ article danger of exclusive emphasis on positivist epistemology, disregarding all approaches outside this understanding of social science: “Keohane’s authorial body textually disciplines the feminist body of literature through categorical mutilation made possible by singular scientific/disciplinary vision”power implications: by drawing new boundaries, Keohane as academic eminence decides what type of scholarship is acceptable within IRNB Position of women and ethnic minorities in discipline of IR? Only good girls welcomed!NB BISA Newsletter 2008 reports on women in the profession.
19Cynthia Weber’s ‘Good Girls, Little Girls, Bad Girls’ article Three different strategies of discipling feminist IR:fetishisation of feminist standpoint theory: incorporation into main IR body as useful for further the positivist scientific projecttemporal displacement of empirical feminism: considered to be less mature, but potentially useful, especially if combined with more mature feminist standpoint theoryspatialisation of post-modern feminism: those parts of feminist IR theory, which cannot be incorporated in the ordered procedure of “scientific” investigation are expelled from the acceptable domains of the discipline
20Cynthia Weber’s ‘Good Girls, Little Girls, Bad Girls’ article Feminist, holistic perspective on multiple strands:“looking through feminist lenses …means seeing modern science and/or international relations theory from at least three perspectives at once, no one of which is privileged over the others. While acknowledging the tensions and complications this creates, both feminist authors welcome rather than attempt to constrain the rich, transformative visions looking through feminist lenses enables. They utilise feminist lenses to analyse the social world and, as a result, transform their own worldviews” (Weber 1994: 339)
21Place of feminist IR theories today incorporation of feminist theories into IR in 1990s, see e.g. IR textbooksfeminist ontology v epistemologyfeminist themes, slower acceptance of feminist methods and sources of knowledge
22Women in International Relations Women as peacemakers, sustainable development actors, human rights advocatesWomen in development (WID)Gender and development (GAD)Gender and peacebuilding
23Gender and Peacebuilding UN Security Council Resolution 2000 Security Council Resolution on Women, Peace and Security October. (SCR) 1325 International Alert Gender and Peace Building (2003) Women Building Peace: Sharing Know-HowThe peace-weaver, according to old English primers, refers to a woman whose marriage sought to bond enemy tribes (Herbert, 1997). Peace-weaver is a popular name for spiritual or handicraft organisations. The idea of women’s peacemaking role goes back to the ancients from Aristophanes’ Lysistrata to the biblical Ester and Ruth. Women have played a prominent role in the modern peace movement and the development of the modern aid sector. The pacifist Eglantyne Jebb, who served as a nurse in the Balkan Wars, founded Save the Children in 1919, while women like Joan Ruddock led the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND). During the Cold War women peace protesters set up a camp against Greenham Common military base women. Following the end of the Cold War the earlier peace movement was overlaid with official conflict management approaches informed by social psychology, which revolved around the idea of promoters of peace versus spoilers of peace. At a simple level international approaches follow gendered representations with women on the side of the angels: women are deemed peace promoters and men peace spoilers, therefore fostering women’s voice in society will support peace. International post-conflict reconstruction projects are keen to empower women in peace processes, whom they see as playing a crucial role in building a sustainable peace. International conflict management NGOs such as International Alert have gender and peacebuilding programmes and lobbied governments and international governmental organisation to incorporate women into peace processes. Major donor states and governmental organisations such as the G8, the European Union, and the OSCE now highlight the women’s role in peacebuilding. The 2000 UN Security Council Resolution (SCR) 1325 on Women, Peace and Security was a major international statement affirming women’s role in peacebuilding. Major international donors like DFID, CIDA, and OECD want gender equality programmes towards creating sustainable peace and development. The earlier simple association with women as peacemakers has modified in policy analysis, which has been adopting more sophisticated social constructivist gender theories in recent years (see International Alert, 2003). But policy practice nevertheless continues to emphasise projects directed towards women. International Alert, Gender and Peacebuilding Web site http://www.international-alert.org/women/International Alert Gender and Peace Building (2003) Women Building Peace: Sharing Know-HowUN Security Council Resolution 2000 Security Council Resolution on Women, Peace and Security October. (SCR) 1325
24Women and pacifismLong historical association of women and pacifism and feminist writing outside IR
25Good girls or bad girls for peace? Greenham Common Women’s Peace CampAgainst Cruise missiles being sited at the RAF Greenham Common Airbase
26Bad girls in IR?To what extent have feminist IR studies or global peace and development policies assumed ‘good girls’ and marginalised role of ‘bad girls’ in global politics?New attention to female combatants
27Making ‘bad girls’ ‘good girls’ A sewing teacher, (L), trains a group of Liberian ex-combatants on Oct. 12, years since the war's end, some 20,000 female fighters, fully 1/5 of all ex-combatants, have been demobilized and are being trained to reenter society. AP Photo
28Little Women sewing longing for action of war ‘I’m dying to go and fight with papa, and I can only stay at home and knit like a poky old woman” and Jo shook the blue army-sock till the needles rattled like castanets, and her ball bounded across the room.’‘They adopted Jo’s plan of dividing the long seams into four parts, and calling the quarters Europe, Asia, Africa and America, and in that way got on capitally, especially when they talked about the different countries as they stitched their way through them.’Jessie Willcox Smith
29Sewing in feminist thought Virtuous girls sewingSewing and women’s oppressionRebellious girls rebelling against sewingPost-feminist knitting as hobbyPolicy language of empowerment v emancipationSewing as emancipatory occupation?Turn to gender and development
30Gender and development Sen’s ‘Missing Women’ article BMJ, March 1992Women’s excess mortality as result of gender biasFigures contested but agreement that women & girl child suffer worse from poverty e.g. malnutritionImportance of women’s agency and wellbeingGood thing in itselfAlso role in developmentChild survivalPopulation control & reducing fertility rates
31Kerala, India Female education & literacy Female property rights Higher child survivalLower fertility rates
32Women’s agency, work & gender equality ‘working outside the home and earning an independent income tend to have a clear impact on enhancing the social standing of a woman in the household and society’ (Sen, 1999, p. 191)Important issue for women’s emancipationYet global development strategies since 1970s have advocated family non-wage labour rather than wage labour outside the home
33Women & microenterprise Grameen Bank or BRAC Bank microcredit approach for womenMuhammad Yunus of Grameen Bank, Nobel PrizeExtremely impressive repayment rates (almost 98%)Link to other changes e.g. lower fertility rate
34Criticisms of microenterprise for women Economic empowerment?Ameliorates position of women in existing social positions & gender roles rather than transforming lives of poorSize of loans granted linked to social class of recipientMicrocredit approach more organised – not chaotic & violent collection of monies owed of commercialBut microcredit loan rates similar to commercial ratesMicrocredit loans may be too small for viable business so may be used towards existing family business, although formally loans for women’s own businessunpublished research by Tahera Choudrey, 2002
35Microenterprise socially empowering women? Disciplining poor critiqueMicrocredit extra-financial conditionality disciplining womenConditionality of loans often include non-financial conditions e.g. related to fertilityDiscipline of group microcredit may reinforce communal discipline & conservativism against individualEmpowerment v emancipationMaking women responsible for family welfare in retreat of state employment, welfare & subsidiesRita Abrahamsen (2000) Disciplining Democracy: Development Discourse and Good Governance in Africa. London: Zed Books.Mark Duffield (2007) Development, Security and Unending War. Cambridge: Polity.See also Pupavac, Vanessa (2005) ‘Empowering Women? An Assessment of International Gender Policies in Bosnia.’ International Peacekeeping, Vol. 12(3), pp
36International emancipation of women? How far have international peace and development policies gone beyond stereotypes of women?