Presentation on theme: "Outline Recap on theory of planned behaviour"— Presentation transcript:
1From exercise intention to behaviour and beyond Hagger & Chatzisarantis, Chapter 3
2Outline Recap on theory of planned behaviour Limitation of social cognitive theories and introducing volitional processesIntention-behaviour relationshipsImplementation intentionsSelf-determination theoryTranscontextual modelOther pre-decisional strategies:Continuation intentionsDecisional balanceCombined strategiesMotivational interviewing
3Applying the TPB to Exercise Behaviour Attitudes.30*IntentionsBehaviour.36*SubjectiveNorms.08*.28*PerceivedControlSource: Hagger, Chatzisarantis & Biddle (2002)
4Intention-Behaviour Relationships However, Intention-Behaviour relationships are often not perfectWhat does this mean?IntentionsBehaviour.36*Less than 1.00!
5Intention-Behaviour Relationships This means that we often do not do what we intend to do!Why?Intention instability: Additional information comes to light and we change our mindPrinciple of correspondence: Errors in measurement of intentions and behaviourIntention formation: Poorly formed intentionsSelf-schema: People with tendency to enact intentionsVolitional and forced intentions: Intentions based on personal beliefs and others’ beliefs
6Limitations of Social Cognitive Theories and Introducing Volitional Processes Intention stabilityIntention stability initially considered a ‘technical problem’ by Ajzen (1985) due to inherent inaccuracies in measurementMore than a technical problem – a boundary condition and an important ‘property’ of intention (Hagger et al., 2001)Stable intentions are better predictors of exercise behaviourIntention stability therefore moderates the intention-behaviour relationship (Conner et al., 2000)
7Limitations of Social Cognitive Theories and Introducing Volitional Processes Scale correspondenceIntention-behaviour link strongest When measures correspond in terms of Action, Target, Context, Time (TACT; Ajzen, 1985)Results in exercise show that correspondence rule does not fully explain variations in intention-behaviour relationship (Hagger et al., 2002)Intention formationPoorly formed intentions (i.e., vague, ill rehearsed) are vulnerable to change because of retrieval and forgettingWell-formed intentions predict behaviour more effectively (Bagozzi & Yi, 1989)
8Limitations of Social Cognitive Theories and Introducing Volitional Processes Self-SchemaSelf-schema are cognitive generalisations about the self derived from past experiencePeople who rate important characteristics relevant to the self highly relevant to the exercise domain are considered schematicsContrast with non-schematics and aschematics“Physically active”, “exercise regularly”, “keeps in shape” rated on describes me-does not describe me scales and importance i.e., not at all important-very important
9Limitations of Social Cognitive Theories and Introducing Volitional Processes Self-Schema1234567Source: Sheeran & Orbell (2000)
10Limitations of Social Cognitive Theories and Introducing Volitional Processes Volitional and forced intentionsPeople may intend to do exercise, but their intentions may not be based on personal attitudes or reasons for engaging in the behaviourPeople may therefore intend to do something because they feel they are ‘forced’ to (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1958)Volitional intentions are those that people feel they want to execute by themselvesChatzisarantis et al. (1997) found that both volitional and forced intentions predicted exercise behaviour independent of traditional intentionsEffect sizes were small so impact was relatively weak
11Implementation Intentions Gollwitzer et al. (1999) Implementation intentions: “Strong effects of simple plans”How do we furnish our goals with actions to achieve the goals?“I intend to achieve goal/outcome X”“I plan to do behaviour Z will help me to achieve X”“If condition Y arises I will do behaviour Z”This does not change intentions, but strengthens the intention-behaviour relationship
12Implementation Intentions Thus implementation intentions act as a moderator of the intention-behaviour relationshipUnder conditions of high implementation intentions there will be a strong intention-behaviour relationshipThus implementation intentions act in a ‘post-decisional’ manner
13Implementation Intentions High implementation intentions result in strong intention-behaviour relationsIntention++BehaviourImplementationIntentionIntentionBehaviourNo ImplementationIntention+
14Studies Using Implementation Intentions Three studies in health behaviour support use of implementation intentions in the field:Orbell et al. (1997) Breast self-examinationSheeran and Orbell (1999) Vitamin tablet intakeOrbell and Sheeran (2000) Function after surgeryKey findings:Attitudes, intentions did not changeBehaviour engagement changedIntention-Behaviour relation strengthenedStudies support the use of implementation intentions
15What Does an Implementation Intention ‘Look’ Like? Typically use a ‘pen and paper’ manipulation:You are more likely to exercise for at least 30 minutes per day in the next week if you say when and where you will exercise and stick to your plan. In the boxes below write down when and where you plan to exercise in the next week:When: At lunch time after accounts meetingWhere: In the gym at work
16Continuation Intentions Chatzisarantis et al. (2004) figured that people’s intentions are inadequateAs we approach a behavioural goal the outcome becomes less salientContinuation intentions (CI) focus on providing intentions to continue beyond the attainment of salient outcomesCI of Success – Plan to continue with exercise program if successful in achieving goalsCI of Failure – Plan to continue with exercise program if unsuccessful in achieving goals
17Continuation Intentions Goal progress – how close a person is to achieving their exercise goalsResults in exercise found CI of success and failure predicted additional variance in behaviour compared with intentions alonePerceived goal progress moderated effects of CI of success and failure on exercise behaviourHigh CI success = greater exercise engagement BUT only under conditions of high perceived goal progress
19Intention-Behaviour Relationship How else can we strengthen the intention-behaviour relationship?IntentionsBehaviour.36*Change these!
20How Do We Change Intentions? Change attitudes, perceived behavioural control to affect decision to exercise before it is madeVarious strategies have been usedAttitudes: Information giving and personalised feedback (Armitage & Conner, 2000)Motives from Self-Determination Theory, using autonomy support strategies (Chatzisarantis et al., 2002; Hagger et al., 2002b)
21Self-Determination Theory Type of MotivationIntrinsicMotivationExtrinsic MotivationIntrinsic MotivationIdentificationIntrojectionExternal regulationPerceived Locus of Causality ScaleFor personally-held values such as learning new skills, resulting in feelings satisfaction; High internalizationFor avoiding external sources, of disapproval (guilt) or gaining externally referenced approval (self-esteem)For external reinforcement such as gaining rewards or avoiding punishment.For enjoyment, pleasure and fun; no discernible reinforcement.DefiningFeaturesAUTONOMOUSMOTIVES(high autonomy)CONTROLLING MOTIVES(low autonomy)Position on Autonomy ContinuumIntrinsicHighInternalisationLowDegree of Internalisation
22Self-Determination Theory and Exercise IntrinsicMotivationIdentifiedRegulationIntrojectedRegulationExternalRegulationAmotivationInternalExternal Locus of Causality“I exercisebecause it’sfun”“I exercisebecause ithelps keepme fit”“I exercisebecause Iwill feelguilty if Idon’t”“I exercisebecause Iwill bepunished if Idon’t”“I’m notreally surewhy Iexercise”Source: Deci and Ryan (1985)
23Influence of Overarching Motives from Self-Determination Theory Attitude.41SubjectiveNormIntention.45PerceivedControlSource: Hagger , Chatzisarantis and Biddle (2002) BJHP
24Influence of Overarching Motives from Self-Determination Theory Attitude.41SubjectiveNormIntentionR2 = .32.45PerceivedControlSource: Hagger , Chatzisarantis and Biddle (2002) BJHP
25Influence of Overarching Motives from Self-Determination Theory ExternalR2 = .55Attitude.41IntrojectionSubjectiveNormIntention.74IntrinsicR2 = .32.37.45PerceivedControl.71R2 = .51Source: Hagger , Chatzisarantis and Biddle (2002) BJHP
27Important Effects in the TCM Attitude.27*.20*PerceivedAutonomySupportAutonomousMotivesAutonomousMotives.49*.39*.25*IntentionBehaviour.16*.15*Control.10Time 3:PhysicalActivityBehaviourTime 1: Physical EducationContextTime 2: Leisure-Time Context*p < .05
28Guidelines Based on Self-Determination Theory and Trans-Contextual Model Reeve (2002) puts forward the behaviours which promote autonomous motivation:Avoid use of external incentives and controlling feedbackPromoting choice and sense of ownershipFocus on task and personal goals rather than comparisons with othersProvide a personal rationaleFeedback that is information related to competence focusing on progress
29Another Example of a Pre-decisional Strategy: Decisional Balance The decisional balance sheet (Wankel, 1984) outlines the positive (‘pros’) and negative (‘cons’) aspects of exerciseSimilar to a ‘cost-benefit’ analysisExercisers attended 84% classes using DB sheet compared with 40% without (Hoyt & Janis, 1975)Some have focused on changing stage from contemplation to action in TTM (see Prochaska & DiClemente, 1993)
30What About Pre- and Post-decisional Strategies in Combination? IV2: Decisional balancePrestwich, Lawton& Conner (2003)Decisional BalanceNoImplementation IntentionCombinedImp. Int.OnlyDec. Bal. OnlyControlIV1: ImplementationIntention
32Decisional Balance and Implementation Intentions Decisional balance in combination with implementation intention exerciseExperimental strategies produced a greater increase in exercise frequency and total time spent exercising per weekVolitional groups taken together produced greater increase in time spent exercising than the DBS aloneThe DBS may have aided recall of the implementation intention or increased commitment to itSource: Prestwich, Lawton & Conner (2003)
33Motivational Interviewing A theoretically based exercise promotion techniqueBorrowed from alcohol abuse and smoking clinical interview techniquesMain proponents: Stephen Rollnick and ColleaguesAim to focus on resistant non-exercisers and help investigate personally-relevant reasons c.f. Deci et al. (1994)
34Motivational Interviewing AimsTo provide information without threatening autonomy and without evoking ‘psychological reactance’To explore conflicts and encourage interviewees to express their own reasons for changeTo use an appropriate strategy according to a person’s ‘readiness for change’
35Motivational Interviewing Key conceptsAmbivalenceProblem: Pro’s and Con’s associated with change, cannot be reconciledSolution: MI aims to explore conflict & encourage people to express their own reasons for concern/changeReadiness to changeProblem: People vary on continuum of readiness:Solution: Moving forward on continuum is desired outcome, even if actual behaviour change does not occur, key strategies ‘a typical day’/‘good things’/‘less good things’Not at allready tochangeUndergoing decisionmaking and actualbehaviour change
36Strategies in Motivational Interviewing A ‘menu’ of strategies:Raise awarenessProvide informationThe ‘future and present’ strategyExploring concernsHelping with decision makingSource: Rollnick, Heather & Bell (1991)
37Key Strategies(1) Raise awareness – e.g. “have you ever thought about exercise?” and “do you know what exercise can do for you?”, avoid scare tactics like “if you don’t exercise you might die of a heart attack!” and statements like “the less good things about exercise are....”(2) Provide information - Providing information in the most optimal way do not “wag your finger”(3) The future and the present strategy - “How would you like things to change in the future” and “what’s stopping you from doing exercise?”(4) Exploring concerns - provide information about the behaviour and how they would like it to change(5) Helping with decision making - Patients in the preparatory phase require assistance in making their decision, self initiation.
38Key Strategies(4) Exploring concerns - provide information about the behaviour and how they would like it to change(5) Helping with decision making - Patients in the preparatory phase require assistance in making their decision, self initiation.
39Self-determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing Markland, Ryan, Tobin, & Rollnick (2005) and Vansteenkiste & Sheldon (2006)Initially - intrinsic motivation stated as a core ‘aspect’ of MI, but no theoretical basisRecent authors present a SDT ‘reading’ of MIApproach in SDT supports psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness:Autonomy: Clients suggest personal reasons for change and experimenter ‘rolls with resistance’Competence: Clients given clear feedback and encouraged to arrive at their own goalsRelatedness: Clients ‘supported’ by non-judgemental interviewer who expresses empathy.
40Source: Markland (2004) Autonomy Support Structure Involvement Motivational interviewingPresent clear and neutral information about behaviour and outcomesProvide positive feedbackDevelop appropriate goalsElicit and reinforce self-motivational statementsMotivational interviewingPresent optionsLet client make decisionsDevelop discrepancy to allow client to changeRoll with resistanceMotivational interviewingExpress empathyDemonstrate understandingAvoid criticism and judgementExplore client’s concernsCompetenceSelf-DeterminationRelatednessSource: Markland (2004)