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Outline Recap on theory of planned behaviour

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1 From exercise intention to behaviour and beyond Hagger & Chatzisarantis, Chapter 3

2 Outline Recap on theory of planned behaviour
Limitation of social cognitive theories and introducing volitional processes Intention-behaviour relationships Implementation intentions Self-determination theory Transcontextual model Other pre-decisional strategies: Continuation intentions Decisional balance Combined strategies Motivational interviewing

3 Applying the TPB to Exercise Behaviour
Attitudes .30* Intentions Behaviour .36* Subjective Norms .08* .28* Perceived Control Source: Hagger, Chatzisarantis & Biddle (2002)

4 Intention-Behaviour Relationships
However, Intention-Behaviour relationships are often not perfect What does this mean? Intentions Behaviour .36* Less than 1.00!

5 Intention-Behaviour Relationships
This means that we often do not do what we intend to do! Why? Intention instability: Additional information comes to light and we change our mind Principle of correspondence: Errors in measurement of intentions and behaviour Intention formation: Poorly formed intentions Self-schema: People with tendency to enact intentions Volitional and forced intentions: Intentions based on personal beliefs and others’ beliefs

6 Limitations of Social Cognitive Theories and Introducing Volitional Processes
Intention stability Intention stability initially considered a ‘technical problem’ by Ajzen (1985) due to inherent inaccuracies in measurement More than a technical problem – a boundary condition and an important ‘property’ of intention (Hagger et al., 2001) Stable intentions are better predictors of exercise behaviour Intention stability therefore moderates the intention-behaviour relationship (Conner et al., 2000)

7 Limitations of Social Cognitive Theories and Introducing Volitional Processes
Scale correspondence Intention-behaviour link strongest When measures correspond in terms of Action, Target, Context, Time (TACT; Ajzen, 1985) Results in exercise show that correspondence rule does not fully explain variations in intention-behaviour relationship (Hagger et al., 2002) Intention formation Poorly formed intentions (i.e., vague, ill rehearsed) are vulnerable to change because of retrieval and forgetting Well-formed intentions predict behaviour more effectively (Bagozzi & Yi, 1989)

8 Limitations of Social Cognitive Theories and Introducing Volitional Processes
Self-Schema Self-schema are cognitive generalisations about the self derived from past experience People who rate important characteristics relevant to the self highly relevant to the exercise domain are considered schematics Contrast with non-schematics and aschematics “Physically active”, “exercise regularly”, “keeps in shape” rated on describes me-does not describe me scales and importance i.e., not at all important-very important

9 Limitations of Social Cognitive Theories and Introducing Volitional Processes
Self-Schema 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Source: Sheeran & Orbell (2000)

10 Limitations of Social Cognitive Theories and Introducing Volitional Processes
Volitional and forced intentions People may intend to do exercise, but their intentions may not be based on personal attitudes or reasons for engaging in the behaviour People may therefore intend to do something because they feel they are ‘forced’ to (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1958) Volitional intentions are those that people feel they want to execute by themselves Chatzisarantis et al. (1997) found that both volitional and forced intentions predicted exercise behaviour independent of traditional intentions Effect sizes were small so impact was relatively weak

11 Implementation Intentions
Gollwitzer et al. (1999) Implementation intentions: “Strong effects of simple plans” How do we furnish our goals with actions to achieve the goals? “I intend to achieve goal/outcome X” “I plan to do behaviour Z will help me to achieve X” “If condition Y arises I will do behaviour Z” This does not change intentions, but strengthens the intention-behaviour relationship

12 Implementation Intentions
Thus implementation intentions act as a moderator of the intention-behaviour relationship Under conditions of high implementation intentions there will be a strong intention-behaviour relationship Thus implementation intentions act in a ‘post-decisional’ manner

13 Implementation Intentions
High implementation intentions result in strong intention-behaviour relations Intention ++ Behaviour Implementation Intention Intention Behaviour No Implementation Intention +

14 Studies Using Implementation Intentions
Three studies in health behaviour support use of implementation intentions in the field: Orbell et al. (1997) Breast self-examination Sheeran and Orbell (1999) Vitamin tablet intake Orbell and Sheeran (2000) Function after surgery Key findings: Attitudes, intentions did not change Behaviour engagement changed Intention-Behaviour relation strengthened Studies support the use of implementation intentions

15 What Does an Implementation Intention ‘Look’ Like?
Typically use a ‘pen and paper’ manipulation: You are more likely to exercise for at least 30 minutes per day in the next week if you say when and where you will exercise and stick to your plan. In the boxes below write down when and where you plan to exercise in the next week: When: At lunch time after accounts meeting Where: In the gym at work

16 Continuation Intentions
Chatzisarantis et al. (2004) figured that people’s intentions are inadequate As we approach a behavioural goal the outcome becomes less salient Continuation intentions (CI) focus on providing intentions to continue beyond the attainment of salient outcomes CI of Success – Plan to continue with exercise program if successful in achieving goals CI of Failure – Plan to continue with exercise program if unsuccessful in achieving goals

17 Continuation Intentions
Goal progress – how close a person is to achieving their exercise goals Results in exercise found CI of success and failure predicted additional variance in behaviour compared with intentions alone Perceived goal progress moderated effects of CI of success and failure on exercise behaviour High CI success = greater exercise engagement BUT only under conditions of high perceived goal progress

18 Continuation Intentions
CI Success CI Failure

19 Intention-Behaviour Relationship
How else can we strengthen the intention-behaviour relationship? Intentions Behaviour .36* Change these!

20 How Do We Change Intentions?
Change attitudes, perceived behavioural control to affect decision to exercise before it is made Various strategies have been used Attitudes: Information giving and personalised feedback (Armitage & Conner, 2000) Motives from Self-Determination Theory, using autonomy support strategies (Chatzisarantis et al., 2002; Hagger et al., 2002b)

21 Self-Determination Theory
Type of Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Identification Introjection External regulation Perceived Locus of Causality Scale For personally-held values such as learning new skills, resulting in feelings satisfaction; High internalization For avoiding external sources, of disapproval (guilt) or gaining externally referenced approval (self-esteem) For external reinforcement such as gaining rewards or avoiding punishment. For enjoyment, pleasure and fun; no discernible reinforcement. Defining Features AUTONOMOUS MOTIVES (high autonomy) CONTROLLING MOTIVES (low autonomy) Position on Autonomy Continuum Intrinsic High Internalisation Low Degree of Internalisation

22 Self-Determination Theory and Exercise
Intrinsic Motivation Identified Regulation Introjected Regulation External Regulation Amotivation Internal External Locus of Causality “I exercise because it’s fun” “I exercise because it helps keep me fit” “I exercise because I will feel guilty if I don’t” “I exercise because I will be punished if I don’t” “I’m not really sure why I exercise” Source: Deci and Ryan (1985)

23 Influence of Overarching Motives from Self-Determination Theory
Attitude .41 Subjective Norm Intention .45 Perceived Control Source: Hagger , Chatzisarantis and Biddle (2002) BJHP

24 Influence of Overarching Motives from Self-Determination Theory
Attitude .41 Subjective Norm Intention R2 = .32 .45 Perceived Control Source: Hagger , Chatzisarantis and Biddle (2002) BJHP

25 Influence of Overarching Motives from Self-Determination Theory
External R2 = .55 Attitude .41 Introjection Subjective Norm Intention .74 Intrinsic R2 = .32 .37 .45 Perceived Control .71 R2 = .51 Source: Hagger , Chatzisarantis and Biddle (2002) BJHP

26 The Transcontextual Model
Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Attitude Identified Regulation Identified Regulation Perceived Autonomy Support Subjective Norm Intention (R2 = .63) Behavior (R2 = .28) Introjected Regulation Introjected Regulation Perceived Behavioural Control External Regulation External Regulation Time 3: Leisure-Time Context Time 1: PE Context Time 2: Leisure-Time Context Hagger, Chatzisarantis, Culverhouse & Biddle (2003) Journal of Educational Psychology

27 Important Effects in the TCM
Attitude .27* .20* Perceived Autonomy Support Autonomous Motives Autonomous Motives .49* .39* .25* Intention Behaviour .16* .15* Control .10 Time 3: Physical Activity Behaviour Time 1: Physical Education Context Time 2: Leisure-Time Context *p < .05

28 Guidelines Based on Self-Determination Theory and Trans-Contextual Model
Reeve (2002) puts forward the behaviours which promote autonomous motivation: Avoid use of external incentives and controlling feedback Promoting choice and sense of ownership Focus on task and personal goals rather than comparisons with others Provide a personal rationale Feedback that is information related to competence focusing on progress

29 Another Example of a Pre-decisional Strategy: Decisional Balance
The decisional balance sheet (Wankel, 1984) outlines the positive (‘pros’) and negative (‘cons’) aspects of exercise Similar to a ‘cost-benefit’ analysis Exercisers attended 84% classes using DB sheet compared with 40% without (Hoyt & Janis, 1975) Some have focused on changing stage from contemplation to action in TTM (see Prochaska & DiClemente, 1993)

30 What About Pre- and Post-decisional Strategies in Combination?
IV2: Decisional balance Prestwich, Lawton & Conner (2003) Decisional Balance No Implementation Intention Combined Imp. Int. Only Dec. Bal. Only Control IV1: Implementation Intention

31 Results: Graphical Representation
Physical activity behaviour

32 Decisional Balance and Implementation Intentions
Decisional balance in combination with implementation intention exercise Experimental strategies produced a greater increase in exercise frequency and total time spent exercising per week Volitional groups taken together produced greater increase in time spent exercising than the DBS alone The DBS may have aided recall of the implementation intention or increased commitment to it Source: Prestwich, Lawton & Conner (2003)

33 Motivational Interviewing
A theoretically based exercise promotion technique Borrowed from alcohol abuse and smoking clinical interview techniques Main proponents: Stephen Rollnick and Colleagues Aim to focus on resistant non-exercisers and help investigate personally-relevant reasons c.f. Deci et al. (1994)

34 Motivational Interviewing
Aims To provide information without threatening autonomy and without evoking ‘psychological reactance’ To explore conflicts and encourage interviewees to express their own reasons for change To use an appropriate strategy according to a person’s ‘readiness for change’

35 Motivational Interviewing
Key concepts Ambivalence Problem: Pro’s and Con’s associated with change, cannot be reconciled Solution: MI aims to explore conflict & encourage people to express their own reasons for concern/change Readiness to change Problem: People vary on continuum of readiness: Solution: Moving forward on continuum is desired outcome, even if actual behaviour change does not occur, key strategies ‘a typical day’/‘good things’/‘less good things’ Not at all ready to change Undergoing decision making and actual behaviour change

36 Strategies in Motivational Interviewing
A ‘menu’ of strategies: Raise awareness Provide information The ‘future and present’ strategy Exploring concerns Helping with decision making Source: Rollnick, Heather & Bell (1991)

37 Key Strategies (1) Raise awareness – e.g. “have you ever thought about exercise?” and “do you know what exercise can do for you?”, avoid scare tactics like “if you don’t exercise you might die of a heart attack!” and statements like “the less good things about exercise are....” (2) Provide information - Providing information in the most optimal way do not “wag your finger” (3) The future and the present strategy - “How would you like things to change in the future” and “what’s stopping you from doing exercise?” (4) Exploring concerns - provide information about the behaviour and how they would like it to change (5) Helping with decision making - Patients in the preparatory phase require assistance in making their decision, self initiation.  

38 Key Strategies (4) Exploring concerns - provide information about the behaviour and how they would like it to change (5) Helping with decision making - Patients in the preparatory phase require assistance in making their decision, self initiation.

39 Self-determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing
Markland, Ryan, Tobin, & Rollnick (2005) and Vansteenkiste & Sheldon (2006) Initially - intrinsic motivation stated as a core ‘aspect’ of MI, but no theoretical basis Recent authors present a SDT ‘reading’ of MI Approach in SDT supports psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness: Autonomy: Clients suggest personal reasons for change and experimenter ‘rolls with resistance’ Competence: Clients given clear feedback and encouraged to arrive at their own goals Relatedness: Clients ‘supported’ by non-judgemental interviewer who expresses empathy.

40 Source: Markland (2004) Autonomy Support Structure Involvement
Motivational interviewing Present clear and neutral information about behaviour and outcomes Provide positive feedback Develop appropriate goals Elicit and reinforce self-motivational statements Motivational interviewing Present options Let client make decisions Develop discrepancy to allow client to change Roll with resistance Motivational interviewing Express empathy Demonstrate understanding Avoid criticism and judgement Explore client’s concerns Competence Self-Determination Relatedness Source: Markland (2004)

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