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Department of Sport Science, Tourism & Leisure Sports Spectator Violence and Disorder. Mike Weed.

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1 Department of Sport Science, Tourism & Leisure Sports Spectator Violence and Disorder. Mike Weed

2 Issues in Crowd Behaviour violence disordercarnivalesque behaviourWhat is the difference between violence, disorder and carnivalesque behaviour? How are these terms defined by various interest groups - Fans? Police? Media? Policymakers? What are the influencing factors? –The sport and its history and culture –National context –Emotion and Identity

3 Five Principal Explanations for Football Hooliganism ApproachPrincipal AuthorsTime PeriodDataContextExplanation MarxistTaylor (1971; 1982); Clarke (1978) Late 1960s / early 1970s TheoreticalDomesticClass Conflict Ethological / Social Psychological Marsh, Rosser & Harre (1978); Marsh (1978; 1984) Mid 1970sEmpiricalDomesticDynamics and rules of group behaviour FigurationalDunning (1999); Williams, Dunning & Murphy (1989; 1990) Early 1980sEmpiricalDomestic (+ later application to International) Dynamics of the rough working class Psychological Reversal Theory Kerr (1994)Mid 1980s – Mid 1990s TheoreticalGenericIndividual metamotivations and search for arousal AnthropologicalArmstrong (1998); Armstrong & Harris (1991) 1990sEmpiricalDomesticDynamics of intra-town rivalry

4 Football Hooligans as Undesirable Sports Tourists Towards a Typology of Explanations Routinisation and Purpose of Trip –Leisure Activities / Day-Trips / Short-Breaks / Holidays Ritual / Cultural Inversion –…tourism involves for participants a separation from normal instrumental life and the concerns of making a living, and offers entry into another kind of moral state in which mental, expressive and cultural needs come to the fore Tourism as the Consumption of Experiences –Hooliganism as a commodity

5 A Speculative Typology of Explanations for Football Hooliganism


7 Marsh (1984), Marsh et al (1978) Examined hooliganism in late 1970s Identified hooligan careers Little violence, much posturing –aggressive behaviour, taunting and baiting, boasting about fights Fans would withdraw at point of physical violence, or rely on being dragged away by friends Attempting to make opposing fans back down first: –a game of bluff rather than actual fighting –BUT, this is never acknowledged, even within the group

8 England Euro 2000 Tournament took place in June 2000 in Holland and Belgium England were eliminated after group stages Much media coverage of potential for trouble prior to tournament Widespread reporting of incidents before, during and after the match with Germany

9 England v Germany (Saturday 17th June) Initial Response Charlerois main square, the Place de Charles II, which should have been the centre of celebration, resembled a battleground. More than 200 English yobs attacked German rivals, hurling chairs and sticks as they went (Sunday Express, 18/6/2000) I had watched with delight as the Belgian riot police had waded into some 200 English thugs in Brussels the night before…. I counted perhaps 300 hardened English hooligans bringing fear and mayhem to Brussels and Charleroi (Times, 19/6/2000)

10 England v Germany (Saturday 17th June) Minority Voices …there was no riot in Charleroi. There was no pitched battle. There were no rival mobs baying for blood. The fighting between English and German fans in the main square lasted for about 60 seconds. The clumsy but effective intervention of Belgian armoured water cannon and mounted police lasted about five minutes (Independent, 19/6/2000) Compared to Marseilles in the World Cup and even Copenhagen last month and despite some vivid television pictures, it was little more than handbags at 20 paces (Times, 19/6/2000)

11 England v Germany (Saturday 17th June) Contribution to violent images It is clear that over the weekend the Belgians decided that a heavy show of force with water cannon, tear gas, dogs and truncheons was the most effective deterrent pour encourager les auters. At a loss to know how to deal with the rioting they seemed to have rounded up everybody in sight (Daily Telegraph, 19/6/2000) When the police eventually moved in yesterday their behaviour was unbelievable, they tipped-off journalists and TV crews that they were about to lift some Germans in a bar and in the melee thousands surged towards the incident. Thats when it went-off as they say. But of course it did! (Observer, 18/6/2000)

12 Dynamics of Euro 2000 Incidents …10 per cent are outright trouble makers (the thugs); 10 per cent respectable supporters (the fans); and a depressing 80 per cent are good-humoured, aggressive, drunken, racist, foul-mouthed boors (the slobs). To tell the thugs and the slobs apart is almost impossible. All were dressed in shorts and baseball caps and bandanas, sports shoes and expensive watches. Most were in their late thirties or early forties. The slobs try vaguely to keep out of trouble but are all too happy to pitch in once the aggro begins…. [The answer] is to appeal to the better nature of the slobs and isolate the thugs who are beyond reason (Independent, 19/6/2000) …while only 10% want to start trouble, another 30% hang on to their coat tails and perhaps more behave in a way that is unacceptable to any civilised community…. There was one in the crowd in Charleroi on Saturday. Shirt off, swaying, on each chorus of No Surrender he thrust out his arm in a Nazi salute. I didnt see him hurt anybody, but is it acceptable? (Daily Express, 19/6/2000)

13 Explanations for Euro 2000 Incidents English Social Culture Of the 800 fans arrested by Belgian police, some were innocent, and many were guilty of being no more loud and obnoxious than the average pub on a Saturday (Guardian, 20/6/2000) [the hooligan]…is likely to be a professional in his 20s, the sort of bloke you see down the boozer, getting loud and giving it large; the kind of man who belts out God Save the Queen whenever hes drunk (Observer, 18/6/2000) …English popular culture encourages and even glorifies such conduct…much of what passes for social life in England is actually a low intensity riot (Sunday Telegraph, 18/6/2000) The fundamental problem is that English social culture is drunken and aggressive (Guardian letters, 20/6/2000)

14 Explanations for Euro 2000 Incidents Cultural Inversion There has been a hard core among Englands travelling support for a long time which has a racist core. But probably more significant in numbers is a body of people from various different clubs around the country who wouldnt dare, or wouldnt even dream, of voicing such sort of sentiments in the context of their home club support (Kevin Miles, FSA, 20/6/2000) In contrast to Germany, where a very clear division exists between normal supporters and hooligans which facilitates the work of police officers, Englands supporters are a mix. An apparently peaceful supporter can join the ranks of the troublemakers. It all depends on circumstances, resistance to alcohol, or solidarity against a common adversary (Le Monde, France, 19/6/2000)

15 Euro 2000 Summary Context of English culture of patriotism and nationalism which manifested itself as: racial hatred anti-IRA sentiments range of insults harking back to war Little violence, but much unpleasant, unacceptable aggressive posturing: game of bluff rather than actual fighting boasts of facing down other countrys fans, making them surrender as had done in the war The above, alongside violent response of Belgian police contributed to images of riots: one sees aggression, but violence itself is surprisingly rare - one has, instead, an illusion of violence (Marsh, 1984; 278)

16 Policy Response The Football (Disorder) Act – December 2000 Amended the Football Spectators Act (1989) on a complaintAllowed Banning Orders to be made on a complaint –if it appears to the officer [that] the respondant has at any time caused or contributed to any violence or disorder in the UK or elsewhere –Also states that violence and disorder are not limited to violence and disorder in connection with football.

17 Policy Response The Football (Disorder) Act – December 2000 Definition of disorder… 1.Stirring up hatred against a group of persons defined by reference to colour, race, nationality (including citizenship) or ethnic or national origins, or against an individual as a member of such a group 2.Using threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour or disorderly behaviour 3.Displaying any writing or other thing which is threatening, abusive or insulting

18 Further Policy Response Home Office Working Group on Football Disorder (March 2001) First government report to recognise link between football hooliganism and wider social forces. Remit: –…to reduce, by means other than new legislation, the level of football disorder (Home Office, 2001) England Members Club the committed racist hardcore Club EnglandRecommended the replacement of the England Members Club (1300 members of which were identified by The Guardian as the committed racist hardcore of Englands support) with a Club England that would focus on initiatives that would: –encourage a fan base more reflective of a modern multi-cultural society –encourage a fan base more reflective of a modern multi-cultural society (Home Office, 2001)

19 Further Policy Response Home Office Working Group on Football Disorder (March 2001) Racism or Xenophobia? The problem is xenophobia rather than racism. There are people who follow England and refuse to accept anything foreign! Perryman (2000) This is perhaps THE central problem in tackling disorder among fans following England, a xenophobic attitude that sees England and anything English as superior to any other nationality or culture Weed (2001)

20 Department of Sport Science, Tourism & Leisure Sports Spectator Violence and Disorder. READING: Weed, M. (2001). Ing-ger-land at Euro 2000: How Handbags at 20 Paces was Portrayed as a Full Scale Riot. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 36(4),

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