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C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology. n 2-hour lectures once per week in both semesters n Wednesdays 9am-11am Biology A150 (here!) n Semester 1:

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Presentation on theme: "C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology. n 2-hour lectures once per week in both semesters n Wednesdays 9am-11am Biology A150 (here!) n Semester 1:"— Presentation transcript:

1 C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology

2 n 2-hour lectures once per week in both semesters n Wednesdays 9am-11am Biology A150 (here!) n Semester 1: Social psychology n Semester 2: Developmental psychology n Handouts, glossaries n Module resources can be found at www.martinhagger.com

3 Social Psychology (Semester 1) n Course text Hogg, M.A. & Vaughan, G.M. (2007). Social Psychology (5 th Ed.). Harlow: Prentice Hall Important: Look at the chapter headings.

4 What is Social Psychology? n Numerous definitions Why? Different strands - based on methods, assumptions and questions raised Why? Different strands - based on methods, assumptions and questions raised Concerned predominantly with: Concerned predominantly with: n Understanding how we interact/communicate n Understanding how our social environment shapes our cognitions and judgements/choices n Understanding human interaction Different approaches to posing and answering questions that arise Different approaches to posing and answering questions that arise

5 The scientific investigation of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviours of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others Allport (1935) What is Social Psychology?

6 Two strands of social psychology Psychological Social Psychology Sociological Social Psychology STRAND CONTINUUM ORIGIN PREVAILING PROCESSES METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH KEY AUTHOR(S) Logical Empiricism Social constructionist Humanistic Social Cognition Language and Culture Quantitative/ Hypothetico-deductive e.g. Experimental Inductive/Qualitative e.g. Discourse analysis c.f. Mr. Spock c.f. Hercules Poirot Popper (1968) Gergen (1973) Shotter (1975)

7 Social Psychology n Social psychologists dont study animals Some Important Considerations and Assumptions

8 Social Psychology n Social psychologists dont study animals Some Important Considerations and Assumptions n People dont behave in a social vacuum n The individual is the unit of analysis n Other people, social contexts, the groups we belong to all affect our decisions and behaviour in social contexts n Experimental psychologists use ingenious experiments to look at social phenomena

9 Social Psychology n Observable behavior n Non-observable phenomena: thoughts opinions, attitudes, beliefs, intentions, goals etc. n What makes social psychology social is that it deals with real or implied presence Some Important Considerations and Assumptions

10 Social Psychology Some Important Considerations and Assumptions Que? We think with words Most of us dont drop litter

11 Social Psychology and Questions? n What are the questions that social psychology intends to answer? –Examples: n How do we make sense of our decisions and expectations in the social world? n How do the choices we make influence our behaviour? n What effects do our decisions have on others and how do others decisions effect us? n How does our membership of a group influence the way we behave?

12 Topics of Social Psychology ConformityDiscrimination PersuasionStereotyping PowerCrowd behaviour Group normsGroup identification Social influenceSocial conflict/harmony ObedienceSocial change PrejudiceDecision making Intergroup relationsLeadership CommunicationAttitudes Impression managementSelf-presentation Social facilitationAttraction and friendship

13 Social Psychology n Scientific methods n Hypotheses formed on the basis of knowledge, assumptions and causal or systematic observation n E.g. hypothesize that a dancer performs better before an audience than alone n Experimental design Methodological Issues

14 Social Psychology n Experimental methods in laboratory n Careful control of independent variables and its effect on a dependent variable n Example 1: Deci and Ryans (1985) experiments on intrinsic motivation n Aimed to examine effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation Methodological Issues

15 Social Psychology n Deci and Ryans (1985) experiments on intrinsic motivation n Effects of rewards on puzzle solving n Independent variable: Reward, no-reward conditions Methodological Issues n Dependent variables: Amount of time spent on puzzle in free choice paradigm and enjoyment n Uses one-way mirror room to observe participants

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17 Results of Deci and Ryans Experiment Intrinsic Motivation

18 Social Psychology n Example 2: Bandura et al.s (1961) Bobo Doll Experiment n Independent variable: Children exposed to two models of behaviour = –aggressive model (e.g. adults punched, kicked, hit doll, tossed it in the air, while saying Hit him down, Sock him in the nose etc.) –nonaggressive adult model (both verbal and physical) n Dependent variable: Amount of aggressive actions children performed when freely interacting with the Bobo Doll Methodological Issues

19 n Bandura et al. (1961): Children watched an adult playing with Bobo doll (5-foot inflated plastic doll). Bobo Doll Experiment Method

20 Method Source: Bandura & Walter (1963) Bobo Doll Experiment

21 Social Psychology n Experimental methods in field n Naturalistic settings outside laboratory n Field experiments have high external validity n Less control over extraneous variables n More difficult to obtain subjective measures (usually relies on observed behaviour) Methodological issues

22 n Dutton & Aron (1974) examined the mis-interpretation of arousal according to environmental feedback n Method: Male participants crossed either n a wobbly suspension bridge high over a canyon = high anxiety OR n or a solid bridge only 10 feet above a brook =low anxiety n As each participant crossed the bridge, an attractive female research assistant approached and n administered questionnaire about some ambiguous pictures of people n gave him her phone number in case he had questions about the study Field Experiment Social Psychology

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24 Field Experiment n Dutton & Aron (1974) Results: Participants on the suspension bridge found more sexual themes in pictures and were also much more likely to call the woman n Conclusion: The arousal that occurred on the wobbly suspension bridge was fear, but participants misattributed it to sexual arousal because of the presence of the attractive research assistant

25 Social Psychology n Nonexperimental methods n Case studies –In-depth analysis of a single case –Interviews, questionnaires, behavior observation –Rich data but less generalizable to population n Survey research and field studies –Questionnaire studies and correlations between constructs –Large samples of respondents looks at group responses –Generalizable, but cannot infer causality because data is CORRELATIONAL –Doesnt involve CHANGING variables/conditions of people Methodological issues

26 Social Psychology n Behaviourism n Neo-behaviourists (e.g., Bandura) need to evoke unobservable constructs to explain behaviour n E.g. Social Modelling imitation of behaviour and shaping by vicarious learning n Cognitive psychology n Representations and cognitive consistency, E.g. Lewins (1951) Field theory representations of social environment affect motivation n Aronson (1984), Festinger and Carlsmith – cognitive dissonance (arousal) evoked attitude change Theories

27 Social Psychology Theories n Evolutionary social psychology n Important behavioural tendencies evoked a survival benefit and therefore became part of human genetic makeup n More recently in the form of sexual selection e.g. fitness indicator theory, sensory bias theory n Personality n Stable, generalized, heritable traits that influence behaviour in a number of contexts n Little evidence for true heritable traits n Collectivist theories: people behave according to social context

28 n Social cognition n Information processing is central to the theory n Examines the effects of social information on decision making and behaviour n Assumes all individuals process information in the same manner Social Psychology Theories


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