1Do handheld devices facilitate face-to-face collaboration Do handheld devices facilitate face-to-face collaboration? Handheld devices with large shared display groupware to facilitate group interactionsC.-C. Liu* & L.-C. Kao†
2Summary Aim: Face-to-face collaboration through handheld devices ProcedureTablet-PC-onlyTablet-PC with network file sharingTablet-PC with shared displayThinking-Pairing-Sharing (TPS) learning activity
3One-to-one collaborative learning scenario using a shared display Workspaces with shared displays
4Relation with Mobile Learning Framework Interaction and collaborationPersonal deviceShare documents and display screensUse proper statistical tools on the Internet
5Which handheld devices help collaboration and in what ways? Using Tablet PC with shared display:Promote shared understanding and increase awarenessShare documents and answers
6Advantages of Handheld Devices Tablet PCs with network file sharingview answersUsing Tablet PC with shared display:ParticipationDiscussionInteractionEasily indicate the visual focusCooperateEdit a group answerIncrease of awareness
7Disadvantages of Handheld Devices Tablet-PCs-onlyNot enough participationNo interaction and communicationDifficulty in exchanging informationUnaware of visual focusTablet PCs with network file sharingStudents tended to focus only on their own Tablet PCsNo interactionNo communicationStudents tended to select one individual's answer as the group answer
8Additional comments Reliable tests Shared space Limited computational powerQuestionnaireStatistical tests
9ConclusionSingle large display systems should be deployed in public areas where students come together to mix, socialize and collaborate throughout the day.(Brignull et al, 2004)Similarly, the deployment of a shared-display system in communal space such as meeting rooms or libraries can also enrich student interaction in after class and informal discussion settings
10E.M. Morken, M. Divitini, O.K Haugalokkent Enriching spaces in practice-based education to support collaboration while mobile: the case of teacher educationE.M. Morken, M. Divitini, O.K Haugalokkent
11SummaryPurposes:- Investigation of the usage of shared display systems to promote cooperation in practice-based education.- Discussion for the importance of common spaces and the role of bulletin boards.- Definition of high-level requirements for a share display system to support practice-based education.ProcedureIllustration of the main concepts with a demonstrator and some fictional scenarios of usage.The demonstrator has been evaluated by three persons in order to collect feedback on the suitability of the shared display system.
12Information hanging on a glass wall in the teachers’ roomThe PPE-board
13Contribution to the mobile learning framework Research in the field of mobile learning and ubiquitous computing focuses on the development of spaces that are inhabited by users and the support that can be provided by enriching these spaces.- By setting shared display systems in common areas, people have easy access to information, announcements, schedules, pictures etc. while they are moving in that space.- Moreover, the shared display system includes the capability both receiving and posting information while mobile.
14Advantages of shared display systems Provide unlimited spaceVisibility of the informationSupport mobility and remote accessFacilitate socializationSupport access to external information sourcesSupport coordinationSupport communication with peopleSupport of sharing of experiencesSupport for collecting, distributing and sharing informationAwareness support through commenting
15Problems/issues Consideration of different types of tools. Need for remote communication.It should serve as a portal instead of a stand-alone application.Easy overview of what is new or relevant in a certain situation.Consideration of contextualized presentation of the information.Privacy
16Additional commentsThe evaluation was carried out only by three people.The evaluation does not refer at all on usability issues.The evaluation was based on semi-structured interviews that lasted about 1 hour.Their evaluation was based only on a short exposure and trial of the system on a laptop before the interview.
17ConclusionThe article is based on a relatively new and unexplored field of mobile learning.Apart from any methodology issues the overall idea of using a shared display system to promote remote communication and sharing of experiences among students seems to be advantageous.Some improvements could be done.
18S. Fallahkhair, L. Pemberton & R. Griffiths Development of a Cross-Platform Ubiquitous Language Learning Service via Mobile Phone and Interactive TelevisionS. Fallahkhair, L. Pemberton & R. Griffiths
19Summary of the ArticleTAMALLE (Television and Mobile phone Assisted Language Learning Environment)TAMALLE is basically designed for second language learners help them to improve their language skills in a ubiquitous informal environment.TAMALLE has stages of the invention of an interactive TV combined with mobile phone.Different experiment was performed on people from different nations using iTV with the prototype of TAMALLE the result showed a positive impact of TAMALLE on the people.
20An Early Example of Supporting for Second Language Learners Mobile devicesMobile devices enhance learning experiences by enabling communications, learning on-the move and use on an ‘anytime and anywhere’ basis.Second Language learners currently are often found with a pocket dictionary or a personal vocabulary book.Non-interactive TelevisionIt clearly affords watching, reading and listening, making it an excellent medium for learners to practice comprehension skills and also to acquire background cultural knowledge.Comprehension of spoken material is strongly supported.
21A Prototype of TAMALLETAMALLE (television and mobile phone assisted language learning environment) main menu.
22A Prototype of TAMALLESupporting comprehension of difficult language item across iTV and mobile phones.
23The Relation to the Framework of Mobile Learning with TAMALLE The idea of this design based on other researches which approve two aspects;the effectiveness of conventional TV in second language learningthe influence of the combination of media and audio.The way of learning those languages was iTV or Mobile phone;using a textual image on the left of the screen of the iTVvideo on the right of the screen of the iTVtextual message type of thing for mobile using client server architecture.The system was based on cross platform architecture using multi tier client/server architecture for both Bluetooth and JAVA Enterprise Development Solution.So, the result of the focus group and language learning theories integrated in a discussion of the learning affordances of iTV and mobile phone technologies and shaped a framework for this design.
24What is good about itThe prototype had good results (Usability, Usefulness, Desirability, Overall Acceptance)Provide immediate access to dictionaryLearn new language items (Vocabulary, Expressions and slang)Learn while doing ordinary and enjoyable activitiesLearners say: Useful helpful motivating easy to use Personal Consistent engaging familiarLearn on-the-move, 'you can learn wherever you are'Support the immersion of culture of drama to assist learning
25What issues are addressed Can Distract from ordinary TV watching with too much data on screenDifficulties to read the text on screen while viewingSize of text on Screen can be an issue if too smallIt is a difficult prototype to enable equal access on a mobile phone (small screen) and TV (large screen).Costs of using the servicesDesign had to be Simple to work on different models of mobilesSupport materials required and research over a long Period of timeSome students who only have a mobile device.The TAMALLE prototype was restricted to iTV's and mobile phones (Should be applied to PDA's, PC, laptops etc. )
26ConclusionThe evaluation results which used different research methods approved the positive effect of this invention.It seems that mobile phone and iTV are very beneficial in second language learning particularly for advanced learners.The mobile device and iTV will purely be for revision rather than the main learning method.Ideally the mobile phone and iTV will be used in conjunction with each other to get maximum benefit.
27Affordances of mobile technologies for experiential learning: the interplay of technology and pedagogical practicesC.-H. Lai, J.-C. Yang, F.-C. Chen, C.-W. Ho & T.-W. Chan
28SummaryExperiential learning emphasises learning for the individual and it utilises experience in a given context to support knowledge acquisition and creation.The research attempts to investigate how mobile technologies (PDAs) facilitate experiential learning.The study is conducted with primary students on a field-trip of exploring plants in school garden so as to compare their knowledge retention and creation.
29Mobile technology system Learning flow1. Photo taking2. Sensory experience3. Further observation4. Comparison5. Question proposing6. Final reportMobile technology systemteachers: prompts and material designing, learning status monitoringstudents: seek answers and respond to the quizzes, share with others with PDAsFindingsStudents with PDAs were more motivated and encouraged to engage with the wildlifeStudents with PDAs retained and created more knowledge than who without PDAs
30Contribution to the mobile learning framework Make outdoor learning much more convenient and accessibleProvide real-time information for learners anytime, anywhereProvide functionalities for note-taking, such as photo-taking, sound recording and writingEncourage people to learn by exploring the tangible contexts and proposing questions activelyEnable people to share ideas and discuss with others during the learning process
31Benefits of PDAs afford Experiential learning Photo taking makes learning efficiently – improve retentionsave time – recording quicklyproduce useful resultseasy to save and managedrawing pictures is difficultSound recording aids proposing more questions – increase knowledge creationProvide real-time material and promptsIncrease motivation and learning achievementGain accurate knowledge activelySave time by note-taking with PDAs
32Considerations / issues Big issue – How interplay between technologies and pedagogical practice can afford better experiential learning- students lost interesting in sensory experience after taking photos- technologies are not substitute of some learning experience- sound recording does not work well enoughtechnical: noisy surroundings – improve recording technologypedagogical: has great difficulty to generate questionsMotivation- can they motivate people engaged in learning for a long period of time?- PDAs make students better or students motivate actions by using PDAs?Ethic issue – Who should provide the PDAs? Schools or individual contribute?
33ConclusionMobile technologies facilitate field-trip and outdoor learningMake learning much more accessible, flexible, convenient, immediate and efficientBuild a bridge between experiential learning and traditional learningTechnologies cannot solely enhance learning but the interplay between technologies and pedagogical practices enables to afford optimal learning
34Innovative socio-technical environments in support of distributed intelligence and lifelong learning G. Fischer, S. Konomi
35SummarySocio-technical environments try to relate tools and systems with the characteristics and abilities of human cognition, supporting the human mind.Lifelong learning (self-directed, informal learning) supported by WMTContext awareness considered
36Summary (continue)Going small: personalized, portable devices and wireless communication – information anywhere at any time.- “Mobility-For-All” (2005): “universe of one”-adaptable to each person’s abilities. PDAs, cellular phones and GPSsGoing large: collaboration and communication through large interactive tables and vertical displays.- “Environment and Discovery Collaboratory” (2001) (EDC): face-to-face collaboration in complex activities, distance in communication and collaboration- Caretta (2004): information sharing through group discussionsGoing everywhere: computation is distributed in the physical environment. RFID transponders into everyday objects providing information about them.- “QueryLens” (2002) accumulates queries connected to physical objects giving the ability to the users to share these queries and modify them
37Contribution to mobile learning framework Mobility-For-All: small devices can be worn or carried providing people the ability of learning information and communicating as they move around in the world. “Right” information at the “right” time. i.e. navigation systemsEDC: tool-rich environments can be used to eliminate the distance and achieve learning not only by face-to-face collaboration, but also learning by distance. Sharing information achieved through interactive displays and through the web.QueryLens: “Right” information in the “right” physical objects. People obtain the information they want about everyday objects. i.e. music CD, learn by the system further information
38Advantages of distributed intelligent technologies Lifelong learning better than school-based learningMobility facilitates situated learning“Universe of one” approachInformation at any time and any placeMobility-For-All facilitates transportation systemWireless networks provide communication and collaboration across physical boundariesEmbedded devices aid people to act and learn about objects in their environment at any time“Right” information in the “right” physical objects
39Problems/ issuesTool-rich environment required, which may not be available or cost-effectiveDeskilling – learned helplessness symptomsLack of reliable usability tests or experiments of the systems describedDoubts for Mobility-For-All “universe of one”Doubts for EDC effectiveness and applicability in mobile learning processQueryLens – ethical issues: probable bombarding of information, privacy issues, isolation
40Problems/ issues“Power of the collective human mind”- not quantifiable
41ConclusionsWMT support lifelong learning and socio-technical environments and provide communication and collaboration in learning, across physical boundaries.Critical points to be considered: context awareness and understanding of human abilities.Challenge of future: say the “right” thing at the “right” time in the “right” way to the “right” person.
42Comparison of the papers SIMILARITIESCollaborationPaper 1- Handheld devicesPaper 2- Shared display systemsPaper 5- Virtual displays (EDC)MobilityPaper 1- Handheld devices (PDAs, tablet PCs)Paper 2 -Shared display systemsPaper 3 - Mobile phonesPaper 4- PDAsPaper 5- Mobile phones, PDAs, GPS, RFID
44(Shared Display systems and TAMALLE) InnovationThe most innovative technologies addressed in the papers were paper 2 and paper 3, which are based on relatively new fields in mobile learning, describing technologies which are not fully explored yet.(Shared Display systems and TAMALLE)
45General conclusionThe papers address different aspects of the transformation of education for a mobile society(Sharples, 2007)As stated in the papers mobile technologies should be developed for educational purposes always considering learners’ abilities and needs.