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Do handheld devices facilitate face- to-face collaboration? Handheld devices with large shared display groupware to facilitate group interactions C.-C.

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Presentation on theme: "Do handheld devices facilitate face- to-face collaboration? Handheld devices with large shared display groupware to facilitate group interactions C.-C."— Presentation transcript:

1 Do handheld devices facilitate face- to-face collaboration? Handheld devices with large shared display groupware to facilitate group interactions C.-C. Liu* & L.-C. Kao

2 Summary Aim: oFace-to-face collaboration through handheld devices Procedure oTablet-PC-only oTablet-PC with network file sharing oTablet-PC with shared display oThinking-Pairing-Sharing (TPS) learning activity

3 One-to-one collaborative learning scenario using a shared display Workspaces with shared displays

4 Relation with Mobile Learning Framework oInteraction and collaboration oPersonal device oShare documents and display screens oUse proper statistical tools on the Internet

5 Which handheld devices help collaboration and in what ways? Using Tablet PC with shared display: oPromote shared understanding and increase awareness oShare documents and answers

6 Advantages of Handheld Devices Tablet PCs with network file sharing oview answers Using Tablet PC with shared display: oParticipation oDiscussion oInteraction oEasily indicate the visual focus oCooperate oEdit a group answer oIncrease of awareness

7 Disadvantages of Handheld Devices Tablet-PCs-only oNot enough participation oNo interaction and communication oDifficulty in exchanging information oUnaware of visual focus Tablet PCs with network file sharing oStudents tended to focus only on their own Tablet PCs oNo interaction oNo communication oStudents tended to select one individual's answer as the group answer

8 Additional comments Reliable tests Shared space Limited computational power Questionnaire Statistical tests

9 Conclusion oSingle large display systems should be deployed in public areas where students come together to mix, socialize and collaborate throughout the day. (Brignull et al, 2004) oSimilarly, the deployment of a shared-display system in communal space such as meeting rooms or libraries can also enrich student interaction in after class and informal discussion settings

10 Enriching spaces in practice- based education to support collaboration while mobile: the case of teacher education E.M. Morken, M. Divitini, O.K Haugalokkent

11 Summary Purposes: - Investigation of the usage of shared display systems to promote cooperation in practice-based education. - Discussion for the importance of common spaces and the role of bulletin boards. - Definition of high-level requirements for a share display system to support practice-based education. Procedure Illustration of the main concepts with a demonstrator and some fictional scenarios of usage. The demonstrator has been evaluated by three persons in order to collect feedback on the suitability of the shared display system.

12 The PPE-board Information hanging on a glass wall in the teachers room

13 Contribution to the mobile learning framework Research in the field of mobile learning and ubiquitous computing focuses on the development of spaces that are inhabited by users and the support that can be provided by enriching these spaces. - By setting shared display systems in common areas, people have easy access to information, announcements, schedules, pictures etc. while they are moving in that space. - Moreover, the shared display system includes the capability both receiving and posting information while mobile.

14 Advantages of shared display systems Provide unlimited space Visibility of the information Support mobility and remote access Facilitate socialization Support access to external information sources Support coordination Support communication with people Support of sharing of experiences Support for collecting, distributing and sharing information Awareness support through commenting

15 Problems/issues Consideration of different types of tools. Need for remote communication. It should serve as a portal instead of a stand-alone application. Easy overview of what is new or relevant in a certain situation. Consideration of contextualized presentation of the information. Privacy

16 Additional comments The evaluation was carried out only by three people. The evaluation does not refer at all on usability issues. The evaluation was based on semi-structured interviews that lasted about 1 hour. Their evaluation was based only on a short exposure and trial of the system on a laptop before the interview.

17 Conclusion The article is based on a relatively new and unexplored field of mobile learning. Apart from any methodology issues the overall idea of using a shared display system to promote remote communication and sharing of experiences among students seems to be advantageous. Some improvements could be done.

18 Development of a Cross- Platform Ubiquitous Language Learning Service via Mobile Phone and Interactive Television S. Fallahkhair, L. Pemberton & R. Griffiths

19 Summary of the Article oTAMALLE (Television and Mobile phone Assisted Language Learning Environment) oTAMALLE is basically designed for second language learners help them to improve their language skills in a ubiquitous informal environment. oTAMALLE has stages of the invention of an interactive TV combined with mobile phone. oDifferent experiment was performed on people from different nations using iTV with the prototype of TAMALLE the result showed a positive impact of TAMALLE on the people.

20 An Early Example of Supporting for Second Language Learners oMobile devices –Mobile devices enhance learning experiences by enabling communications, learning on-the move and use on an anytime and anywhere basis. –Second Language learners currently are often found with a pocket dictionary or a personal vocabulary book. oNon-interactive Television –It clearly affords watching, reading and listening, making it an excellent medium for learners to practice comprehension skills and also to acquire background cultural knowledge. –Comprehension of spoken material is strongly supported.

21 A Prototype of TAMALLE TAMALLE (television and mobile phone assisted language learning environment) main menu.

22 A Prototype of TAMALLE Supporting comprehension of difficult language item across iTV and mobile phones.

23 The Relation to the Framework of Mobile Learning with TAMALLE oThe idea of this design based on other researches which approve two aspects; –the effectiveness of conventional TV in second language learning –the influence of the combination of media and audio. oThe way of learning those languages was iTV or Mobile phone; –using a textual image on the left of the screen of the iTV –video on the right of the screen of the iTV –textual message type of thing for mobile using client server architecture. oThe system was based on cross platform architecture using multi tier client/server architecture for both Bluetooth and JAVA Enterprise Development Solution. oSo, the result of the focus group and language learning theories integrated in a discussion of the learning affordances of iTV and mobile phone technologies and shaped a framework for this design.

24 What is good about it oThe prototype had good results (Usability, Usefulness, Desirability, Overall Acceptance) oProvide immediate access to dictionary oLearn new language items (Vocabulary, Expressions and slang) oLearn while doing ordinary and enjoyable activities oLearners say: Useful helpful motivating easy to use Personal Consistent engaging familiar oLearn on-the-move, 'you can learn wherever you are' oSupport the immersion of culture of drama to assist learning

25 What issues are addressed oCan Distract from ordinary TV watching with too much data on screen oDifficulties to read the text on screen while viewing oSize of text on Screen can be an issue if too small oIt is a difficult prototype to enable equal access on a mobile phone (small screen) and TV (large screen). oCosts of using the services oDesign had to be Simple to work on different models of mobiles oSupport materials required and research over a long Period of time oSome students who only have a mobile device. oThe TAMALLE prototype was restricted to iTV's and mobile phones (Should be applied to PDA's, PC, laptops etc. )

26 Conclusion oThe evaluation results which used different research methods approved the positive effect of this invention. oIt seems that mobile phone and iTV are very beneficial in second language learning particularly for advanced learners. oThe mobile device and iTV will purely be for revision rather than the main learning method. oIdeally the mobile phone and iTV will be used in conjunction with each other to get maximum benefit.

27 Affordances of mobile technologies for experiential learning: the interplay of technology and pedagogical practices C.-H. Lai, J.-C. Yang, F.-C. Chen, C.-W. Ho & T.-W. Chan

28 Summary Experiential learning emphasises learning for the individual and it utilises experience in a given context to support knowledge acquisition and creation. The research attempts to investigate how mobile technologies (PDAs) facilitate experiential learning. The study is conducted with primary students on a field-trip of exploring plants in school garden so as to compare their knowledge retention and creation.

29 Learning flow 1. Photo taking 2. Sensory experience 3. Further observation 4. Comparison 5. Question proposing 6. Final report Mobile technology system teachers: prompts and material designing, learning status monitoring students: seek answers and respond to the quizzes, share with others with PDAs Findings Students with PDAs were more motivated and encouraged to engage with the wildlife Students with PDAs retained and created more knowledge than who without PDAs

30 Contribution to the mobile learning framework Make outdoor learning much more convenient and accessible Provide real-time information for learners anytime, anywhere Provide functionalities for note-taking, such as photo- taking, sound recording and writing Encourage people to learn by exploring the tangible contexts and proposing questions actively Enable people to share ideas and discuss with others during the learning process

31 Benefits of PDAs afford Experiential learning Photo taking makes learning efficiently – improve retention save time – recording quickly produce useful results easy to save and manage drawing pictures is difficult Sound recording aids proposing more questions – increase knowledge creation Provide real-time material and prompts Increase motivation and learning achievement Gain accurate knowledge actively Save time by note-taking with PDAs

32 Considerations / issues Big issue – How interplay between technologies and pedagogical practice can afford better experiential learning - students lost interesting in sensory experience after taking photos - technologies are not substitute of some learning experience - sound recording does not work well enough technical: noisy surroundings – improve recording technology pedagogical: has great difficulty to generate questions Motivation - can they motivate people engaged in learning for a long period of time? - PDAs make students better or students motivate actions by using PDAs? Ethic issue – Who should provide the PDAs? Schools or individual contribute?

33 Conclusion Mobile technologies facilitate field-trip and outdoor learning Make learning much more accessible, flexible, convenient, immediate and efficient Build a bridge between experiential learning and traditional learning Technologies cannot solely enhance learning but the interplay between technologies and pedagogical practices enables to afford optimal learning

34 Innovative socio-technical environments in support of distributed intelligence and lifelong learning G. Fischer, S. Konomi

35 Summary Socio-technical environments try to relate tools and systems with the characteristics and abilities of human cognition, supporting the human mind. Lifelong learning (self-directed, informal learning) supported by WMT Context awareness considered

36 Summary (continue) Going small: personalized, portable devices and wireless communication – information anywhere at any time. - Mobility-For-All (2005): universe of one-adaptable to each persons abilities. PDAs, cellular phones and GPSs Going large: collaboration and communication through large interactive tables and vertical displays. - Environment and Discovery Collaboratory (2001) (EDC): face-to-face collaboration in complex activities, distance in communication and collaboration - Caretta (2004): information sharing through group discussions Going everywhere: computation is distributed in the physical environment. RFID transponders into everyday objects providing information about them. - QueryLens (2002) accumulates queries connected to physical objects giving the ability to the users to share these queries and modify them

37 Contribution to mobile learning framework Mobility-For-All: small devices can be worn or carried providing people the ability of learning information and communicating as they move around in the world. Right information at the right time. i.e. navigation systems EDC: tool-rich environments can be used to eliminate the distance and achieve learning not only by face-to-face collaboration, but also learning by distance. Sharing information achieved through interactive displays and through the web. QueryLens: Right information in the right physical objects. People obtain the information they want about everyday objects. i.e. music CD, learn by the system further information

38 Advantages of distributed intelligent technologies Lifelong learning better than school-based learning Mobility facilitates situated learning Universe of one approach Information at any time and any place Mobility-For-All facilitates transportation system Wireless networks provide communication and collaboration across physical boundaries Embedded devices aid people to act and learn about objects in their environment at any time Right information in the right physical objects

39 Problems/ issues Tool-rich environment required, which may not be available or cost-effective Deskilling – learned helplessness symptoms Lack of reliable usability tests or experiments of the systems described Doubts for Mobility-For-All universe of one Doubts for EDC effectiveness and applicability in mobile learning process QueryLens – ethical issues: probable bombarding of information, privacy issues, isolation

40 Problems/ issues Power of the collective human mind- not quantifiable

41 Conclusions WMT support lifelong learning and socio-technical environments and provide communication and collaboration in learning, across physical boundaries. Critical points to be considered: context awareness and understanding of human abilities. Challenge of future: say the right thing at the right time in the right way to the right person.

42 Comparison of the papers SIMILARITIES oCollaboration Paper 1- Handheld devices Paper 2- Shared display systems Paper 5- Virtual displays (EDC) oMobility Paper 1- Handheld devices (PDAs, tablet PCs) Paper 2 -Shared display systems Paper 3 - Mobile phones Paper 4- PDAs Paper 5- Mobile phones, PDAs, GPS, RFID

43 oInteraction Paper 1- Shared displays Paper 2- Shared display systems (touch screen) Paper 3- Interactive television Paper 4- PDAs Paper 5- PDAs, Interactive tables, GPS

44 Innovation The most innovative technologies addressed in the papers were paper 2 and paper 3, which are based on relatively new fields in mobile learning, describing technologies which are not fully explored yet. (Shared Display systems and TAMALLE)

45 General conclusion oThe papers address different aspects of the transformation of education for a mobile society (Sharples, 2007) As stated in the papers mobile technologies should be developed for educational purposes always considering learners abilities and needs.

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