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RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 Rethinking feedback: what's.

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Presentation on theme: "RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 Rethinking feedback: what's."— Presentation transcript:

1 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 Rethinking feedback: what's it for, and how can it make a difference? DAI HOUNSELL UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011

2 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011

3 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011

4 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 The Trouble with Feedback

5 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011

6 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011

7 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 Feedback Fundamental s

8 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FUNDAMENTALS OF FEEDBACK What forms does feedback take? pro forma written comments exemplars exams guidance feedforward traditional collaboration on-display learning peer audio past questions screencast whole-class clickers in-class assignments cumulative editing anticipatory feedback elective self co- revision e-feedback redrafting reviewing progress criteria dialogue supervision interaction briefing student involvement faster feedback model answers training video online

9 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FUNDAMENTALS OF FEEDBACK Why Does Feedback Speak in So Many Voices? what's effective or feasible feedback can vary in relation to –the level of study / stage of students' progression in the subject at university level –the task or activity they are engaged in –the wider course setting / teaching-learning environment (and its feedback 'affordances' and constraints) –the purpose(s) of the feedback ' signature' feedback practices (c.f. Shulman) an expanding palette of possibilities

10 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FUNDAMENTALS OF FEEDBACK So what is 'feedback', exactly and why does it matter? Feedback comprises information, processes, activities or experiences which aim to encapsulate, enable or boost students' learning i.e. –feedback doesn't just come from comments by lecturers/tutors –[good] feedback is performance-enhancing

11 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FUNDAMENTALS OF FEEDBACK So what is 'feedback', exactly and why does it matter? Feedback comprises information, processes, activities or experiences which aim to encapsulate, enable or boost students' learning Feedback can focus on: attainmentwhat a student knows, understands or can do at a given point in time progresswhere a student currently stands in relation to a specified goal, target or level achievementwhat a student has achieved as demonstrated in a completed assignment or task

12 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FUNDAMENTALS OF FEEDBACK What is 'feedback' and why does it matter? Why feedback matters –learning without feedback is 'blind archery' –feedback is indispensable to effective teaching and assessment, optimising the conditions under which each student can achieve their best

13 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FUNDAMENTALS OF FEEDBACK Who gives feedback, where and when ? Sources of feedback –Lecturers, tutors, demonstrators, supervisors, mentors –Fellow-students / peers, a students own reflections –The audience for a seminar or poster presentation, professional practitioners Feedback where and when? formallyinformally in timetabled classes / onlineoutwith timetabled classes / offline intrinsicextrinsic prior to a task or activity during a task or activityafter a task or activity

14 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FUNDAMENTALS OF FEEDBACK FEEDBACK'S MANY PURPOSES

15 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 Feedback That Makes More of a Difference

16 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 F EEDBACK THAT MAKES MORE OF A DIFFERENCE Better opportunities to use feedback Enhancing students' grasp of feedback and standards Boosting the availability and richness of feedback

17 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FEEDBACK THAT MAKES MORE OF A DIFFERENCE Better opportunities to use feedback Why is feedback often uncollected ? Why might some feedback always come too late ?

18 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FEEDBACK THAT MAKES MORE OF A DIFFERENCE Better opportunities to use feedback Why is there such a big difference between how we give feedback to our undergraduate and our doctoral students ?

19 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FEEDBACK THAT MAKES MORE OF A DIFFERENCE Better opportunities to use feedback Why is there such a big difference between how we give feedback to our undergraduate and our doctoral students ?

20 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FEEDBACK THAT MAKES MORE OF A DIFFERENCE Better opportunities to use feedback From feedback to feedforward – 'feedback-first' and draft/revise/resubmit assignments – cumulative assignments – wikis (Beaumont et al 2008)

21 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011

22 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FEEDBACK THAT MAKES MORE OF A DIFFERENCE Boosting the availability & richness of feedback Generic and whole-class feedback On-display learning Collaborative tasks & activities

23 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 OBSERVATION AS A PROXY FOR FEEDBACK

24 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011

25 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FEEDBACK THAT MAKES MORE OF A DIFFERENCE Enhancing students' grasp of feedback & standards "The many diverse expressions of dissatisfaction with written feedback can be interpreted as symptoms of impoverished and fractured dialogue. Mass higher education is squeezing out dialogue with the result that written feedback, which is essentially a monologue, is now having to carry much of the burden of teacher- student interaction." (Nicol, 2010)

26 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 ESSAY WRITING AND FEEDBACK (1987) "Tutors fail to acknowledge 'the subtle interplay between what is said and what is taken for granted' (Rommetveit, 1979, p. 96) and so do not seek to close the gap between their own and their students' understanding of expectations." (Hounsell, 1987, p. 114)

27 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FEEDBACK THAT MAKES MORE OF A DIFFERENCE Enhancing students' grasp of feedback & standards Elective feedback Exemplars Peer and self-generated feedback

28 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 FEEDBACK, CONNOISSEURSHIP & DIALOGUE "[Students] need to learn to discover what quality looks and feels like, and the aspects – whether large or small – that detract from it. They need to develop a vocabulary for expressing and communicating what they find. Furthermore, they should gradually attune their growing realisations and discourse to the norms of the discipline, field or profession" (Sadler, 2010) The process of engagement needs staff and students to share and develop a greater understanding of the complexity of feedback processes, and of what can be expected from all parties in this process." (Price, Handley & Millar, in press)

29 RETHINKING FEEDBACK: WHAT'S IT FOR, AND HOW CAN IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Dai Hounsell, University of Nottingham, 22 September 2011 F EEDBACK THAT MAKES MORE OF A DIFFERENCE Better opportunities to use feedback Enhancing students' grasp of feedback and standards Boosting the availability and richness of feedback


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