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The Physical Landscape of Britain and Northern Ireland: Technical Development Claudio Piccinini and Mike Smith, School of Geography, Geology and the Environment,

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Presentation on theme: "The Physical Landscape of Britain and Northern Ireland: Technical Development Claudio Piccinini and Mike Smith, School of Geography, Geology and the Environment,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Physical Landscape of Britain and Northern Ireland: Technical Development Claudio Piccinini and Mike Smith, School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, Kingston University Janet Hooke and Katherine Hesketh, Department of Geography, University of Liverpool WEB MAP APPLICATION FRONT-END

2 GEOMORPHOLOGY THEMATIC (e.g. the BRITICE project ) SPATIALLY RESTRICTED (e.g. GeoEast) BROAD-BRUSH(e.g. National Character Areas) SOURCES THIS PROJECT provide the interested professional, researcher and the general public with access to information, data and knowledge on the geomorphology of the British landscape journal articles PhD dissertationsbooks government reports



5 LEVEL1 Environment/ LandformProcessesImpactMaterial Timescale or periodAttribute within systemHazardsTechniqueManagement LEVEL2 AeolianAccretionagricultural impactAlluviumAnnualantecedentBreacharchaeologybiodiversity BogAdvanceclimate changeBedrockCenturybaselineDebris flowDTM/ DEMbuffer CoastalDenudationdam impactBouldersDecadalChangeDroughtEnvironmenal Magnetismbuffer zone DownlandDepositiondesertificationClayEventchaosErosiongeochemistry catchment management EscarpmentErosion environmental impactsColluviumHistoricalcomplexFloodgeochronology/datingchannelization EstuarineFireeutrophicationConsolidatedHolocenecouplingLandslide Geographic Information system (GIS) climate change adaptation FellsGlaciationhuman impactsGravelLongerdynamicMudflow Global Positioning System (GPS) climate change mitigation FluvialGroundwaterland - use impactMinerogenicMilleniaequilibriumPollutionmappingconservation GlacialHydraulicsmining impactOrganicPleistoceneErodibilityRockfallmodellingConservation status HillsHydrologySea Level RisePeatQuaternaryfeedbackSedimentationmonitoringdesalinization KarstIsostasystorm surgesSandSeasonalfrequencyStormpalynologyDredging LacustrineMass movementtourism impactSiltTertiaryGrain sizeSubsidenceremote sensingFlood defence LowlandMigrationurbanisationSoilinheritanceSurgestratigraphyhard engineering marineNutrient flux Unconsolidat edInstabilityTsunamitracerpreservation MoorlandPollutionmagnitudeProtection MountainRetreatRateQuarrying PeriglacialRunoffregimeReclamation PlateauSea-levelresiliencerestoration slopeSediment transportResistancesoft engineering StructuralSedimentation return period/ recurrence intervalWater resources UplandSolutesstore UrbanStoragesustainability WetlandStormsthresholds TidesWater quality Uplift Water flow Waves Weathering - 9 level1 terms level2 terms - 10 level2 terms have level3 terms 1 DATABASE

6 LEVEL2FluvialCoastalMass movementslopesAeolianGlacialPeriglacialStructuralKarstLake LEVEL3 Alluvial fanBarDebris flowCliff (slopes)Dunecirque/ corriecirclesFaultcaveDelta (lake) BankBeachLandslidedebris cones crag and tail patterned groundFolddry valleybathymetry Barberm (coastal)MudflowDebris flow Driftpolygons gorge(karst)lake BraidingbreachRockfallgullies drumlin solifluction lobes inselbergmere Buried channelCliff(coastal) Pediment erraticsstone pavement karren Catchmentcurrents Pipes eskerstripes limestone pavement Channelcusp (coastal) rills hummocksterrace pothole Cut-offDelta (coastal) scree kame sinkhole FloodplainDune kame terrace tor Gorge (fluvial)Estuary moraine Gullyheadland roche mountonée LeveeLagoon MeanderNearshore Palaeochann elnotch RiverOffshore River terracesplatform ValleySaltmarsh WaterfallSpit tombolo - 83 level3 terms


8 Interoperability MySQL Vs. PostgreSQL/PostGIS Spatial functions General functions Usability Upload spatial data to database tables Visualize and edit spatial data stored in database tables store, manage and analyse spatial data full-text search indexes transactions and foreign keys stored procedures in different languages statistical analyses performance of spatial operations Administration Popularity 1 DATABASE

9 MysqlPostgreSQL/PostGIS INTEROPERABILITY Free GIS Data and ETL LoadersOGR2OGR, shp2pgsql, OGR2OGR, osm2pgsql, GeoKettle, Spatial Data Integrator Commercial GIS Data LoadersFMEFME, Manifold, ArcGIS Server ArcSDE Free Desktop Viewers and EditorsGvSIGOpenJump, QuantumGIS, GvSig, uDig Commercial Desktop Viewers and EditorsFME FME, Manifold, free SpatialKit extension for ArcGIS x, CadCorp, Autocad FDO, MapInfo 10+ Output other than text and binary formats (WKT, WKB) useful for mapping applications KML, SVG, GML, GEOJSON, GeoHash SPATIAL FUNCTIONS Number of spatial functions Limited. Before MySQL , these features are available for MyISAM tables only more than 350 Spatial indexR-Tree (only for MyISAM tables)R-Tree index implemented on top of GiST idex Testing spatial relationships between geometriesBefore MySQL tests use the feature bounding rectangleX Spatial operators that produce geometries (e.g. buffer, difference, intersection, union) X Additional Metadata Views geometry_column table, geography_column view Change reference system to another on the fly X Edit geometries (add, remove, move points); transform geometries( scale shift, rotate) X Linear Referencing functions X Spatial Aggregates X Geodetic support using the geography data type (only WGS 84 long-lat and output in meters) 3D Support PostGIS2.x Raster support PostGIS2.x Network routing using PgRouting

10 GENERAL FUNCTIONS Statistical analysis and graphs connect to R using the PL/R language Create stored procedures using different languages X Full-text-search indexesonly for MyISAM tablesX Foreign keys and transactionsonly InnoDB tablesX Query optimizationIt considers only the query and how it could be optimized it considers also the database structure and uses a genetic algorithm to find the most effective way of executing a query Triggers are activated by SQL statements only. However they are not activated by cascading updates and deletes even when caused by a SQL statement. can execute any user-defined function from any of its procedural languages USABILITY Limits to insert big geometries By default the 'max_allowed_packet' parameter is set to 16M for the mysql client program and 1mb for the server. To insert bigger geometries you will need to increase the parameter value. On shared servers MySQL it may not be possible to increase the value Performance using spatial functionalitiesSome tests shows it can be slower than PostGIS Storage engines 9 different storage engines, the most popular InnoDB and MyISAM. The MyISAM engine is often the only database engine offered by webhosting providers. Both support geospatial types but only MyISAM supports geospatial indexing (see the following 2 tables) You are not restricted to using the same storage engine for an entire schema and can specify the storage engine for any table. A single storage engine Asynchronous API for use by client applications X PopularityX Easy to administerX

11 SPATIAL TABLES Location stores the bounding boxes Place UK gazetteer 1:50,000 about 260,000 point set "GEOM"=ST_Transform(ST_GeometryFromText('SRID=4277;POINT('|| "LONG" ||' '|| "LAT" || ')'),4326); Proj4 library : OSGB36 to WGS84 Features Natural reserves, National Trust properties, Sites of special scientific interest …… 1 DATABASE

12 WHY? To ease the data management Security *Administrator manage the database structure *Data manager Add/update/delete data using the front-end *User Query the data using the web map application 2. Front-End


14 { "type": "FeatureCollection", "features": [ { "type": "Feature", "properties": {"id":, : }, "geometry": }, ] } { "type": "FeatureCollection", "features": [ { "type": "Feature", "properties": {"id":"285178","NAME":"The Combe" }, "geometry": { "type":"Point", "coordinates":[ , ]} } ] } TEMPLATE GeoJson if ($n>0){ for ($i = 1; $i < $n; $i++) { $others.=" OR \"NAME\"='".$places[$i]."'"; } $sql = "select \" PLACE_ID\" as id, \" NAME \", ST_AsGeoJSON(\"GEOM\") as geom from \"public\".\"PLACE\" where \"NAME\"='".$first."'".$others; $rsdata = $this->db->Execute($sql)->GetRows(); $rs = array(); $this->assign('rs', $rsdata); $this-> display($data_template);

15 3. Web Mapping Application


17 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT Mobile application 3D Visualization

18 The Physical Landscape of Britain and Northern Ireland: Technical Development

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