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Human Social Interaction Social Neuroscience Research Dr. Roger Newport Room B47 Office Hours: Tuesdays 12-2

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Presentation on theme: "Human Social Interaction Social Neuroscience Research Dr. Roger Newport Room B47 Office Hours: Tuesdays 12-2"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Social Interaction Social Neuroscience Research Dr. Roger Newport Room B47 Office Hours: Tuesdays

2 C8CSNR - introduction to course content Human Social Interaction Research Proposal What is the module about? The neuroscience of H.S.I Recognition of others Emotions visual cues auditory cues Actions from eye movements from limb and body movements Minds how do we know what other people are thinking? 4

3 Interpreting others Using neuroscience RF Emotions Minds Actions Threat perception Fear recognition swearing Clangers Predicting others actions Knowing self vs. others actions Social perception from visual cues Stereotyping Misinterpreting others Theory of Mind (mind reading) 14 course content

4 Understanding emotion From visual cuesFrom auditory cues course content 6

5 Understanding actions From body movements course content From eye movements 8

6 Understanding Actions from Implied motion and biological motion 11 9 course content

7 Self/other representations Telling our own actions from the actions of others 10 course content

8 Theory of mind Simulation What happens next? Understanding Minds knowing what others know course content Predicting the actions of others from visual cues 12

9 Understanding the Neuroscience - we will talk about… Methods like thesePictures like these course content 13

10 Taught Lectures approximately 2 hours long two 50 minute sessions with time at the end for questions 6 lectures in total (not inc. this one) will provide the background to your research proposal topic will be interspersed with revision/feedback lectures Revision/Feedback Lectures not lectures as such to revisit difficult areas will be student-led - you provide the questions questions and queries must be submitted 5 days before lecture + Feedback/advice about assessments 15 course content

11 C8CSNR 20 credits - year long Coursework with some lectures 3 research proposals - each worth 33% Approx. 7 weeks between each proposal deadline Deadline details will be available on the website once confirmed More details at course content - summary 16

12 LLLr?r? D 4pm LLXXXXE EmotionsActions Ef?f? D 4pm LLf?f? XXXXD 4pm ActionsMinds Spring Autumn course content important dates 17

13 Module Structure - a module with a difference What you wont do Exams Dissertations Multiple Choice Data Collection Introduction to course assessment 18

14 Module Structure - a module with a difference What you will do Listen to some lectures Read about something that interests you the most (a PDF library is provided to get you started) Think of an experiment that would advance our knowledge of that subject Price up your experiment Write up your experiment proposal X 3 course assessment 19

15 course assessment - the form 20

16 course assessment - the form 21

17 Choose your equipment and participants course assessment - the form 22

18 course assessment - the form 23

19 What should the proposals contain? Each 2,500 word research proposal should detail the background, rationale, methodology and expected outcomes of one or more make-believe experiments investigating a particular HSI issue. The word limit is an absolute maximum and a set form should be used. Each proposal must be submitted 5 weeks after each mini lecture series. What is required?Imagination and a good understanding of a specific research area in HSI. Can I choose any topic? Yes, as long as it is related to the lecture material. Check with me if you are not sure. Can I invent any experiment? Yes, but within limits. You can use any equipment or participant groups you want, so long as you stay within a specified budget. Equipment and participants have a cost roughly relating to how rare that equipment or participant is in real life. You have a maximum of 1500 units to spend. course assessment FAQ 24

20 What can we get from you? Practically nothing in terms of ideas for experiments, but periodic feedback will be given as well as some web- based support (in addition to lectures of course). I can tell you if an experiment is plausible and within the scope of the course and I can help with budget queries. 1 rule. Anything else we should know? You will have to show that you understand the procedural and analysis requirements for any proposed experiments as well as having a solid rationale and sensible potential outcomes that are theoretically relevant to social neuroscience. If you dont feel up to that you should bale out now. What else? All proposed experiments must be original (theoretically relevant modifications to existing paradigms are allowed, replications are not). What if my great idea gets published before I hand it in? You can bank ideas with me by if you are worried that they might be stolen by real scientists. course assessment FAQ 25

21 What you will write about Why it would be an interesting thing to study (background) What you would hope to find out (Q.s to be answered) How you would do it (plan of investigation) How you would analyse it (details of data analysis) What you think you would find (expected outcomes) What could go wrong (details of difficulties foreseen) What it all means (future purpose and theoretical implications) course assessment FAQ 26

22 How will it be marked? according to lab report guidelines in Handbook (this is not true) When will it be marked? soon after submission (this is true) When will I get my marks back? that is a very good question PROVISIONAL marks should be available 2-3 weeks after submission What kind of feedback can I get? Individual feedback will not be possible Group feedback between each submission course assessment FAQ 27

23 Course website - useful pages 28 All handouts & lectures can be downloaded from the web Large print or full page versions can also be made Username: c8clhs (lowercase!!) Password: hsipfn Several very relevant journal articles and review articles are available as PDFs on the web-site This is not an exhaustive list. Further reading is freely available through internet and library resources Revision questions should be submitted through the web-site.

24 Course Reading Recommended Books: None Best course material is source material (i.e. journal articles). Many are available from my web-page library. Many more available on request. They are: free up-to-date Vital for being on the cutting edge of research (which will help you get a good mark). 29 *Good primer reading available on web page*

25 PubMed Web of Science Useful websites 30 How to read a journal article. Google Author webpages

26 Introduction to cognitive social neuroscience Social cognitive neuroscience: An integrated interdisciplinary field asks questions about topics traditionally of interest to social psychologists (such as emotion regulation, attitude change, or stereotyping) using cognitive neuroscience methods (such as functional brain imaging and neuropsychological patient analysis) NB: This course will concentrate mainly on aspects of social interaction that are non-verbal and are concerned with the interpreting the actions and emotions of other people 31

27 Why do we want to know about brain activity? We already know that behaviour involves the brain (e.g. Gage, Tan, Bertino) brain localization can be helpful in solving psychological models Models use hypothetical representations and processes. Automatic process: The boys a fool Controlled process: Some of my best friends are presidents Hypothetical representation D 32

28 We can observe a behaviour and construct a hypothetical model to explain that behaviour (e.g. Bruce and Young face processing model) Evidence in support of models is based on whether they can account for behavioural data On the face of it, models work because they can explain observable behaviour And they can be modified to incorporate new, unusual behaviour Observed behaviourVisual input Processing unit Except on Tuesdays 34 Why do we want to know about brain activity?

29 Visual input Face processing unit Emotion processing unit AngerFear Visual input Fear P.UAnger P.U AngerFear Problem - More than one model can explain the same data so how do we tell which one is correct? Two potential models for the processing of facial expressions of fear and anger 35

30 Behavioural measures such as RT data How do we differentiate between models? Visual input Face processing unit Emotion processing unit AngerFear Visual input Fear P.UAnger P.U AngerFear Brain localization 36

31 Cognitive neuroscience methods Single Cell recording Animal studies Open head surgery Brain Imaging PET fMRI EEG MEG TMS Patient studies Disease Degeneration Head Trauma Stroke Congenital abnormality Psychiatric patients Three main techniques 37

32 Single Cell recording 38

33 Patient RM Patient ML lesion studies 39 + monkey lesions Problems Large lesions Up/downstream White matter etc. Overlay issues

34 Brain imaging 40

35 Brain imaging – PET & fMRI PET and fMRI provide indirect measures of blood flow (haemodynamic response) BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) fMRI provides a measure of haemodynamic adjustments Good spatial resolution, poor temporal resolution 41 Results often displayed on maps like these

36 Functional brain imaging and lesion studies often try to localise constructs such as lexical access or motor sequence learning Localising the brain activity associated with a construct is compelling evidence for the psychological reality of the construct e.g. Theory of Mind. Brain imaging 42 Subject. One mature Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) participated in the fMRI study. The salmon was approximately 18 inches long, weighed 3.8 lbs, and was not alive at the time of scanning. Task. The task administered to the salmon involved completing an open-ended mentalizing task. The salmon was shown a series of photographs depicting human individuals in social situations with a specified emotional valence. The salmon was asked to determine what emotion the individual in the photo must have been experiencing.

37 43

38 EEG/ERP EEG is a measurement of the electrical activity in the brain created when neurons fire ERPs are a type of EEG EEG measurement time-locked to an experimental event Good temporal resolution Poor spatial resolution 44

39 MEG (Magnetoencephalograpgy) Measurement of magnetic fields occurring outside the head as a result of naturally occurring electrical activity in the brain Better spatial resolution than EEG/ERP Relatively rare 45

40 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)? Uses electromagnetic induction to temporarily disrupt brain function Can be very focal Very high temporal resolution Can induce seizures + need to exercise caution with vulnerable populations 46

41 Brain regions - knowing which bit is which The almost complete list of brain regions we will cover 47

42 Brain regions - knowing which bit is which48 BA44 Brocas Area Left inferior frontal gyrus Left frontal operculum Left ventral premotor area

43 Social cognitive neuroscience is an integrated interdisciplinary field that asks questions about social psychology using cognitive neuroscience methods Social psychology is riddled with hypothetical models (as well as rubbish experiments and unexplored avenues of research). Knowledge about brain function can help differentiate between models Cognitive neuroscience provides information about brain function Summary 49

44 No single neuroscience method can provide all the answers Summary Not all social processes can be localised (not all problems can be solved) 50 Your task, should you choose to accept it, is to learn about SCN topics and design experiments that provide answers to problems. Dont panic (yet).

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