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Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic.

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Presentation on theme: "Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Digital Control of Power Supply Systems with Reduced Standby Losses DigiPowerSave Background Background Motivation Motivation Technology Developed Technology Developed Commercialisation Commercialisation

2 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Background Regenerative electronic load for testing microprocessor Voltage Regulator Modules (VRM) developed under PRP/00/PEI/02b, High Current/Low Voltage Converters for Environmentally Friendly Energy Regenerative electronic load for testing microprocessor Voltage Regulator Modules (VRM) developed under PRP/00/PEI/02b, High Current/Low Voltage Converters for Environmentally Friendly Energy System demonstrated at IEEE APEC and Electronica. System demonstrated at IEEE APEC and Electronica. Detailed negotiations with companies to license this technology. Detailed negotiations with companies to license this technology. Elements of this technology are now being commercialised demonstrate MOSFET/Drivers. Elements of this technology are now being commercialised demonstrate MOSFET/Drivers.

3 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland 2005 MOSFET Demonstrator Follow-on project due completed in November Follow-on project due completed in November Observation: It appears easier to sell technology development than to license technology ? Observation: It appears easier to sell technology development than to license technology ?

4 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Motivation for DigiPowerSave Off-line, or mains-fed power supplies consist of two parts, Off-line, or mains-fed power supplies consist of two parts, a front-end rectifier or ac/dc converter, to draw raw power from the mains a front-end rectifier or ac/dc converter, to draw raw power from the mains a second precision dc/dc converter to feed the low voltage electronic circuits. a second precision dc/dc converter to feed the low voltage electronic circuits. Arising out of PRP/00/PEI/02b, we had developed digital techniques for front-end ac/dc converters. Arising out of PRP/00/PEI/02b, we had developed digital techniques for front-end ac/dc converters. From our experience in industrial motor drive technology, it was clear that digital control would also extend to the dc/dc power supply world. From our experience in industrial motor drive technology, it was clear that digital control would also extend to the dc/dc power supply world. Digital control can bring major advantages to both of these converter technologies. Digital control can bring major advantages to both of these converter technologies.

5 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Potential for Digital Control in Off-Line Power Supplies Input AC/DC Converter Stage Input AC/DC Converter Stage Standby power in off-line power supplies uses 30W in every home in Ireland. Standby power in off-line power supplies uses 30W in every home in Ireland. Up to 35 million, or 5% of residential consumption, is wasted every year, resulting in quarter of a million tonnes of CO 2 generated. Up to 35 million, or 5% of residential consumption, is wasted every year, resulting in quarter of a million tonnes of CO 2 generated. Digital control enables the use of non-linear topologies to optimise efficiency and minimise standby loss. Digital control enables the use of non-linear topologies to optimise efficiency and minimise standby loss. Network communications facilitates remote power supply control. Network communications facilitates remote power supply control. Output DC/DC Converter Stage Output DC/DC Converter Stage Accurate and precise PWM control. Accurate and precise PWM control. Potential for optimised adaptive control algorithms. Potential for optimised adaptive control algorithms. Reduced sensor requirements. Reduced sensor requirements. Digital communications with front-end ac/dc converter can help in overall system efficiency. Digital communications with front-end ac/dc converter can help in overall system efficiency.

6 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Typical power supply unit Objectives:- Objectives:- To address the growing environmental issue of stand-by energy loss and maximise efficiency. To address the growing environmental issue of stand-by energy loss and maximise efficiency. To optimise the advantages of emerging digital control techniques to produce a tightly controlled dc output voltage. To optimise the advantages of emerging digital control techniques to produce a tightly controlled dc output voltage. Applications include power supplies for a wide range of electronic products. Applications include power supplies for a wide range of electronic products.

7 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Innovation in Digital AC/DC Converter Control Use of novel topologies Use of novel topologies Digital technology allows non-linear control strategies not possible using analogue schemes Digital technology allows non-linear control strategies not possible using analogue schemes Alternative sensing arrangements can be implemented Alternative sensing arrangements can be implemented Extra magnetics can be eliminated, improving manufacturability Extra magnetics can be eliminated, improving manufacturability Special standby modes Special standby modes Burst operation when power levels are low Burst operation when power levels are low Introduction of low- power standby function Introduction of low- power standby function Reduction of intermediate bus voltage during standby Reduction of intermediate bus voltage during standby This also increases reliability of electrolytic capacitors This also increases reliability of electrolytic capacitors Hold-up capacities can be folded back Hold-up capacities can be folded back ATRP/01/314DigiPowerSave

8 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Topology Implementation Two prototypes power supplies were developed Two prototypes power supplies were developed A 65W two-switch flyback A 65W two-switch flyback No power factor correction is required below 70W No power factor correction is required below 70W Typical power level for dvd players and set-top boxes Typical power level for dvd players and set-top boxes Supply controlled by DSP on secondary Supply controlled by DSP on secondary Secondary post regulation was used for standby operation Secondary post regulation was used for standby operation A 200W novel topology A 200W novel topology 12V output to be cascaded with high spec dc-dc 12V output to be cascaded with high spec dc-dc Typical configuration for computer supplies Typical configuration for computer supplies DSP on the primary, microcontroller on the secondary DSP on the primary, microcontroller on the secondary Intermediate bus voltage reduced for standby operation Intermediate bus voltage reduced for standby operation ATRP/01/314DigiPowerSave

9 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland 65W Two-Switch Flyback Secondary Side DSP control Secondary Side DSP control Low power TopSwitch tm -fed winding on the same transformer for start-up Low power TopSwitch tm -fed winding on the same transformer for start-up Output filter inductor is used as a buck when in standby mode Output filter inductor is used as a buck when in standby mode ATRP/01/314DigiPowerSave

10 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Efficiency in Normal Mode ATRP/01/314DigiPowerSave

11 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Efficiency in Standby Mode ATRP/01/314DigiPowerSave

12 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Power Flow in an Off-Line PSU ATRP/01/314DigiPowerSave Power goes directly to the output Power stored in the bus caps Power from bus caps Required Output Power Power from bus caps Mains Input Power

13 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Novel 200W Topology

14 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Topology Characteristics Benefits Benefits Only a single magnetic is required Only a single magnetic is required 70% of the power requires only one conversion 70% of the power requires only one conversion No inrush current, no NTC thermister required No inrush current, no NTC thermister required Intermediate bus voltage can be reduced Intermediate bus voltage can be reduced Drawbacks Drawbacks 2 high-side gate drives required 2 high-side gate drives required Fast recovery rectifier diodes required Fast recovery rectifier diodes required Primary leakage results in re-circulating energy Primary leakage results in re-circulating energy Discontinuous currents Discontinuous currents

15 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland 200W Prototype Only one custom magnetic component Only one custom magnetic component Efficiency 83% to 87% Efficiency 83% to 87% ATRP/01/314DigiPowerSave

16 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Future possibilities The digital strategies and technology developed in this project could also be applied to The digital strategies and technology developed in this project could also be applied to Power supplies with integral UPS features Power supplies with integral UPS features Integration of small scale generation with a household supply Integration of small scale generation with a household supply Solar panels Solar panels Small wind turbines Small wind turbines Micro CHP Micro CHP Integration of power supplies with building management systems Integration of power supplies with building management systems ATRP/01/314DigiPowerSave

17 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Digital control in dc-dc conversion Divides into two separate applications: Divides into two separate applications: Digital control loop (high-frequency) Digital control loop (high-frequency) System monitoring/interfacing (low-frequency) System monitoring/interfacing (low-frequency) Project focus on digital control loop Project focus on digital control loop Development of hardware modules Development of hardware modules High-frequency, high-resolution pulse generation High-frequency, high-resolution pulse generation Generation of multiple matched and phase-delayed signals requiring area-efficient implementation Generation of multiple matched and phase-delayed signals requiring area-efficient implementation FPGA-based architectures with frequency calibration capability FPGA-based architectures with frequency calibration capability Algorithm development Algorithm development Observer-based control Observer-based control

18 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Generation of multiple high- frequency, high- resolution pulsed digital signals Reduced cost of current sensors Project development: Typical dc-dc buck converter architecture

19 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland High resolution pulse generation Delay line approach Delay line approach Minimises required clock frequencies Minimises required clock frequencies Uses logic gates as delay elements Uses logic gates as delay elements Difference in time delay between paths allows very high resolution pulses to be generated. Difference in time delay between paths allows very high resolution pulses to be generated.

20 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland High resolution pulse generation UCC approach uses 3 delay granularities UCC approach uses 3 delay granularities Minimises required implementation area Minimises required implementation area Achieves very high resolution (~ 255 ps) Achieves very high resolution (~ 255 ps)

21 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland High resolution pulse generation Architecture expanded to generate multiple outputs Architecture expanded to generate multiple outputs Phased nature of outputs used to reduce implementation area compared to non-optimised architecture Phased nature of outputs used to reduce implementation area compared to non-optimised architecture

22 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Commercialisation I Two digitally controlled PSUs have been developed Two digitally controlled PSUs have been developed A 65W supply for set-top box applications A 65W supply for set-top box applications A 200W single magnetic unit with integrated power factor correction. A 200W single magnetic unit with integrated power factor correction. Intellectual property Intellectual property Novel single magnetic topology Novel single magnetic topology Application of state space methods to PSU control Application of state space methods to PSU control Potential for commercialisation Potential for commercialisation Discussions with large IC company regarding PSU digital control. Discussions with large IC company regarding PSU digital control. Support for Irish power supply companies wishing to incorporate digital control into their products Support for Irish power supply companies wishing to incorporate digital control into their products Licensing of novel topology to be further explored. Licensing of novel topology to be further explored. ATRP/01/314DigiPowerSave

23 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Commercialisation II June, 2005, 'A digital PWM controller for multi- phase dc/dc converters' (DigiPowerSave). This patent was allowed to lapse as it was not licensed. June, 2005, 'A digital PWM controller for multi- phase dc/dc converters' (DigiPowerSave). This patent was allowed to lapse as it was not licensed. Discussions with large IC companies regarding the use of high resolution PWM generation Discussions with large IC companies regarding the use of high resolution PWM generation ATRP/01/314DigiPowerSave

24 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The comparative non-isolated bi-directional dc-dc converter analysis Marek Rylko Marek Rylko

25 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Aim of the work Comparative half-bridge bi-directional high- power dc-dc converter analysis Comparative half-bridge bi-directional high- power dc-dc converter analysis Switching regimes (soft and hard switching) Switching regimes (soft and hard switching) Switching devices (MOSFET, IGBT, diode) Switching devices (MOSFET, IGBT, diode) Materials (silicon, SiC, GaN) Materials (silicon, SiC, GaN) Operating frequency limits Operating frequency limits Volume and cost analyses Volume and cost analyses Magnetic design Magnetic design An inductor An inductor An transformer An transformer

26 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Introduction The hi-power dc-dc converter application The hi-power dc-dc converter application Automotive (power train) Automotive (power train) Battery chargers Battery chargers Fuel Cell stationary generators Fuel Cell stationary generators Wind turbines (potentially) Wind turbines (potentially) Electric crafts Electric crafts Battery SuperCap DC-DC Converter Regenerative Load

27 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Power Requirement Power requirement depends on design i.e.: Power requirement depends on design i.e.: The automotive application for mid-size C class car 100kW peak for 30sec and 50kW continuous power – competitive performance to present ICE cars The automotive application for mid-size C class car 100kW peak for 30sec and 50kW continuous power – competitive performance to present ICE cars The battery charger - maximum charging current and voltage (charging regimes) The battery charger - maximum charging current and voltage (charging regimes) Consideration of the work-cycle is important to avoid an overestimated design Consideration of the work-cycle is important to avoid an overestimated design

28 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Power Supply The internal combustion engine with generator (gasoline, diesel, CNG, LPG, hydrogen, methanol) The internal combustion engine with generator (gasoline, diesel, CNG, LPG, hydrogen, methanol) Pollution (NO x, CO and CO 2 ) Pollution (NO x, CO and CO 2 ) Crude Oil shortage Crude Oil shortage The fuel cell The fuel cell Zero emission (excluding hydrogen production) Zero emission (excluding hydrogen production) Refuelling problem, low social acceptance Refuelling problem, low social acceptance Short Cycle Lifetime Short Cycle Lifetime The battery The battery Well established technology, clean but expensive and requires complex production process, contains toxic components, recycling problem Well established technology, clean but expensive and requires complex production process, contains toxic components, recycling problem The solar panel The solar panel Low power density, solar radiation dependent Low power density, solar radiation dependent

29 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Car Power Train Classical solutions with IEC Classical solutions with IEC Hybrid propulsion systems (IEC and electric motor) Hybrid propulsion systems (IEC and electric motor) Series Hybrid Series Hybrid Parallel Hybrid Parallel Hybrid Series-Parallel Series-Parallel Complex Hybrid Complex Hybrid The battery electric vehicle The battery electric vehicle The fuel cell electric vehicle The fuel cell electric vehicle

30 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Hybrid Car Classification

31 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Fuell Cell Fuell Cell types and properties Fuell Cell types and properties Types PEM, AFC, PAFC, MCFC, SOFC Types PEM, AFC, PAFC, MCFC, SOFC fuel cell operates best at a 30 percent load factor due to issue of mass transport limitation (oxygen and hydrogen contact with membrane) fuel cell operates best at a 30 percent load factor due to issue of mass transport limitation (oxygen and hydrogen contact with membrane) Ironically, the fuel cell does not eliminate the battery – it promotes it. Ironically, the fuel cell does not eliminate the battery – it promotes it. The fuel cell needs batteries as a buffer. Efficiency up to 65% at 30% of load (efficiency is output power reffered to LHV – includes water vaporisation) Efficiency up to 65% at 30% of load (efficiency is output power reffered to LHV – includes water vaporisation) Complex auxiliary components system Complex auxiliary components system Auxiliary system requires 10-15% of FC rated power Auxiliary system requires 10-15% of FC rated power High cost High cost

32 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Battery - types and properties The Battery - types and properties Types: Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA), NiCd, NiZn, NiMH, Zn/Air, Al/Air, Na/S, Na/NiCl 2, Li-Polymer, Li-ion, Types: Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA), NiCd, NiZn, NiMH, Zn/Air, Al/Air, Na/S, Na/NiCl 2, Li-Polymer, Li-ion, High efficiency up to 99% (Li-ion polymer exclude converter) High efficiency up to 99% (Li-ion polymer exclude converter) Zero emission (energy generation not included) Zero emission (energy generation not included) Specific energy 330Wh/kg Li-ion superpolymer Electrovaya Specific energy 330Wh/kg Li-ion superpolymer Electrovaya Specific power 315W/kg at 80% discharge rate (Li-ion polymer) Specific power 315W/kg at 80% discharge rate (Li-ion polymer) Energy density 600Wh/liter Li-ion superpolymer Electrovaya Energy density 600Wh/liter Li-ion superpolymer Electrovaya High cost (>100 /kWh Li-ion) High cost (>100 /kWh Li-ion) Short lifetime ( at 80% discharge rate Li-ion) or 3-7 years Short lifetime ( at 80% discharge rate Li-ion) or 3-7 years Toxic component – needs recycling policy Toxic component – needs recycling policy Battery terminal voltage varies with state of charge and discharge current ( V for VLRA, 3-4V for Li-ion) Battery terminal voltage varies with state of charge and discharge current ( V for VLRA, 3-4V for Li-ion) Charging issues Charging issues Super Capacitor Super Capacitor Batteries

33 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Load 4-quadrant inverter with electric motor 4-quadrant inverter with electric motor Energy recovering Energy recovering Energy conditioning for double-fed induction motor Energy conditioning for double-fed induction motor

34 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Converter Isolated – push and pull, full bridge Isolated – push and pull, full bridge Non-isolated – half-bridge buck-boost, cascade, buck, boost, CUK, Sepic/Luo, voltage multipliers (magnetic- less) Non-isolated – half-bridge buck-boost, cascade, buck, boost, CUK, Sepic/Luo, voltage multipliers (magnetic- less) Hard switched (HS) Hard switched (HS) Soft switched (SS) Soft switched (SS) Simplicity Simplicity Bi- and uni-directional Bi- and uni-directional Advantages and disadvantages Advantages and disadvantages Non-isolated SS converter Isolated converter Non-isloated HS converter

35 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Hard and Soft Switching The Hard Switching The Soft Switching Switching losses limit the maximum operating switching frequency and may result in significant device derating. The soft switching constrains the switching of the power devices to time intervals when the voltage across the device or the current through it is nearly zero.

36 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Semiconductor Devices Materials Materials Silicon Silicon Silicon Carbide (SiC) Silicon Carbide (SiC) Gallium(III) Nitride (GaN) Gallium(III) Nitride (GaN) Devices Devices MOSFET (CoolMOS) MOSFET (CoolMOS) IGBT (Trench, Planar) IGBT (Trench, Planar) BJT BJT Thyristor Thyristor

37 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Magnetics Inductor Inductor High inductance dc inductor with small ac- component – small current ripple High inductance dc inductor with small ac- component – small current ripple Low inductance dc inductor with high ac- component – high current ripple Low inductance dc inductor with high ac- component – high current ripple Transformer Transformer Magnetising inductance issue Magnetising inductance issue Power loss associated Power loss associated Core (histeresis, eddy currents) Core (histeresis, eddy currents) Windings (eddy currents – skin and proximity effect) Windings (eddy currents – skin and proximity effect)

38 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Soft-Switching Converter The converter has been made by adding an auxiliary cell to the classical half-bridge bi-directional converter.

39 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Soft-Switching Converter The presented soft-switched converter is quasi-resonant with an auxiliary commutation cell The presented soft-switched converter is quasi-resonant with an auxiliary commutation cell Benefits of solution are: Benefits of solution are: Use intrinsic MOSFET body diodes Use intrinsic MOSFET body diodes High efficiency over a wide load range up to 97.6%* High efficiency over a wide load range up to 97.6%* High operating frequency leading to size reduction High operating frequency leading to size reduction Very robust, topology ensuring safe operating region by hardware design Very robust, topology ensuring safe operating region by hardware design Works above audible frequency 100kHz Works above audible frequency 100kHz Disadvantages Disadvantages More elements than classical solution More elements than classical solution Auxiliary signals Auxiliary signals Complicated design process Complicated design process *For V 1 /V 2 = 0.5

40 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Duty Cycle Analysis The converter is assumed to operate under fixed bus voltage conditions and the converter average output current gain is investigated The converter is assumed to operate under fixed bus voltage conditions and the converter average output current gain is investigated The pole-voltage wave shape is affected by the turn-on and turn-off mechanisms The pole-voltage wave shape is affected by the turn-on and turn-off mechanisms The converter current gain can differ significantly from the idealised HS case The converter current gain can differ significantly from the idealised HS case Pole voltage SS cell HS ideal

41 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Duty Cycle Numerical Verification HS SS The HS and the SS case differs due to SS V·s loss Gray points represents PSpice simulation results

42 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Converters comparison Three converters have been built and tested Three converters have been built and tested Soft-switched MOSFET based – low ripple Soft-switched MOSFET based – low ripple Hard-switched MOSFET based – high ripple Hard-switched MOSFET based – high ripple

43 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Converters comparison Hard-switched IGBT based – low ripple Hard-switched IGBT based – low ripple Table I. Converters comparison

44 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Converters comparison Switching Devices Switching Devices MOSFET - Infineon type SPW47N60 (CoolMOS) MOSFET - Infineon type SPW47N60 (CoolMOS) IGBT - International Rectifier type IRGP50B60 (WARP2) IGBT - International Rectifier type IRGP50B60 (WARP2) Auxiliary MOSFET - Infineon type SPP12N50C3 (CoolMOS) Auxiliary MOSFET - Infineon type SPP12N50C3 (CoolMOS) Inductors Inductors Low-ripple inductor made of solid wire Low-ripple inductor made of solid wire ø1.5mm, 19 turns, 200 H, core EE65, ø1.5mm, 19 turns, 200 H, core EE65, material 3F3, total airgap 1.44mm High-ripple inductor made of Litz wire High-ripple inductor made of Litz wire 25xø0.315mm, 7 turns, 28 H, core EE65, material 3F3, total airgap 2.38mm

45 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Converters comparison - results

46 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Test Rig Main pole Inductor The Soft- switching cell Control board

47 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Soft-Switching Cell

48 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Main Pole

49 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The Control Board Based TMS320F2808

50 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Conclusions Bi-directional converters have been investigated only Bi-directional converters have been investigated only The three converters, which have been presented, achieve high efficiency of order 96-97% over a wide load range The three converters, which have been presented, achieve high efficiency of order 96-97% over a wide load range Low-ripple HS MOSFET on test shows efficiency of order 88% due to the poor intrinsic diode Low-ripple HS MOSFET on test shows efficiency of order 88% due to the poor intrinsic diode The IGBT transistor with the soft-switching cell did not demonstrate any significant efficiency improvements The IGBT transistor with the soft-switching cell did not demonstrate any significant efficiency improvements The HS-converters with the IGBT transistors are preferred at frequencies up to 150kHz due to lower cost and simplicity The HS-converters with the IGBT transistors are preferred at frequencies up to 150kHz due to lower cost and simplicity Beyond 150kHz MOSFETs indicates superiority over IGBTs Beyond 150kHz MOSFETs indicates superiority over IGBTs High-ripple converter, despite great efficiency results, cause serious challenge for magnetic design due to significant current AC component High-ripple converter, despite great efficiency results, cause serious challenge for magnetic design due to significant current AC component

51 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland Continuing work Converters comparison at higher frequency 200kHz- 500kHz Converters comparison at higher frequency 200kHz- 500kHz IGBT operation frequency limits under hard and soft switching regime IGBT operation frequency limits under hard and soft switching regime A uni-directional dc-dc converter comparison with different switching devices at 100kHz-500kHz (IGBT+Si/SiC, MOSFET+Si/SiC) A uni-directional dc-dc converter comparison with different switching devices at 100kHz-500kHz (IGBT+Si/SiC, MOSFET+Si/SiC) Inductor design for the converter at 100kHz-200kHz and 100kW Inductor design for the converter at 100kHz-200kHz and 100kW Cost analysis Cost analysis Interleaved converter Interleaved converter

52 Nottingham July 2008Control of AC-DC, HF DC-DC and Automotive DC-DC Converters Power Electronics Research Laboratories, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland The End Thank you for your attention. Thank you for your attention.


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