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Melanie Walker and Arona Dison SUN, 21st October 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Melanie Walker and Arona Dison SUN, 21st October 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Melanie Walker and Arona Dison SUN, 21st October 2009

2 the purposes of universities in contemporary times: reductionist (human capital) or expansive (human development); the purposes of universities in contemporary times: reductionist (human capital) or expansive (human development); human development as the normative underpinning of a good/ transforming university; human development as the normative underpinning of a good/ transforming university; generating capability-based dimensions of professional education generating capability-based dimensions of professional education professional education in universities professional education in universities

3 Whose interests is higher education serving? Whose interests is higher education serving? What are people able to do and be? What are groups able to do and be by virtue of their group-ness? What are professionals able to do and to be? What are people able to do and be? What are groups able to do and be by virtue of their group-ness? What are professionals able to do and to be? How ought university education to enable such doings and beings both for individuals, for groups and for people outside the academy, especially those living in conditions of poverty and without opportunities to access a university education? How ought university education to enable such doings and beings both for individuals, for groups and for people outside the academy, especially those living in conditions of poverty and without opportunities to access a university education?

4 (i) people in conditions of poverty are highly dependent on public action and public services as they have no private resources to invest and suffer most from poor service provision and delivery (Keefer and Khemani, 2005); (i) people in conditions of poverty are highly dependent on public action and public services as they have no private resources to invest and suffer most from poor service provision and delivery (Keefer and Khemani, 2005); (ii) socially conscious social elites can play a a significant role in affecting social policy and change in society when they see themselves as having some moral responsibility for and obligation towards the poor (De Swaan et al, 2000); (ii) socially conscious social elites can play a a significant role in affecting social policy and change in society when they see themselves as having some moral responsibility for and obligation towards the poor (De Swaan et al, 2000); (iii) professionals equipped with knowledge, practical skills and public service values can make a positive difference in the everyday lives of the people with whom they come into contact. (iii) professionals equipped with knowledge, practical skills and public service values can make a positive difference in the everyday lives of the people with whom they come into contact.

5 Human development: development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives (UNDP) Human development: development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives (UNDP) Development by and for people-as-agents, humane priorities, wide and deep participation Development by and for people-as-agents, humane priorities, wide and deep participation Goods in life include both commodities and non commodifed goods (the love of music for its own sake; warm friendships; participation in a community; appearing in public without shame...) Goods in life include both commodities and non commodifed goods (the love of music for its own sake; warm friendships; participation in a community; appearing in public without shame...) There is a range of valued human ends: income and economy would still matter, but the purpose of educational development would be to enlarge all worthwhile human choices, not just income or lifetime earnings. There is a range of valued human ends: income and economy would still matter, but the purpose of educational development would be to enlarge all worthwhile human choices, not just income or lifetime earnings.

6 C apabilities are the real and actual freedoms (opportunities) people have to do and be what they value being and doing. Sens capability approach asks us to evaluate development as the expansion of peoples freedoms to have well-being and agency in terms of what they themselves value being and doing, and to work to increase their freedom to be in those ways or to do those things. C apabilities are the real and actual freedoms (opportunities) people have to do and be what they value being and doing. Sens capability approach asks us to evaluate development as the expansion of peoples freedoms to have well-being and agency in terms of what they themselves value being and doing, and to work to increase their freedom to be in those ways or to do those things. Nussbaums 10 central universal capabilities set out what is required for a fully human life. Nussbaums 10 central universal capabilities set out what is required for a fully human life.

7 Conventional conceptualisations: resource- based (under a dollar a day); and/or subjective happiness (utility) Conventional conceptualisations: resource- based (under a dollar a day); and/or subjective happiness (utility) Alternative: a multidimensional understanding –poor people are deprived of a range of possibilities and choices to be and to do what they value being and doing Alternative: a multidimensional understanding –poor people are deprived of a range of possibilities and choices to be and to do what they value being and doing

8 Balancing of personal development, economic opportunities and social good/citizenship Balancing of personal development, economic opportunities and social good/citizenship Social critic and space of public reasoning (Sen: no discussionless justice) Social critic and space of public reasoning (Sen: no discussionless justice)

9 Globalization, markets in higher education, human capital aim dominates, managerialism, staff and student mobilities, stratified universities, and inequalities between universities in North and South (cf league tables and what they value/reward) Globalization, markets in higher education, human capital aim dominates, managerialism, staff and student mobilities, stratified universities, and inequalities between universities in North and South (cf league tables and what they value/reward)

10 Address moral urgencies - foster a public culture of non-domination and equality that can inspire us, even as fearful human beings to value mutual aid and reciprocity (Nussbaum, 2008); not well served by training useful profit-makers with obtuse imaginations(Nussbaum, 2006). Higher education which cultivates humanity (Nussbaum, 1997) Address moral urgencies - foster a public culture of non-domination and equality that can inspire us, even as fearful human beings to value mutual aid and reciprocity (Nussbaum, 2008); not well served by training useful profit-makers with obtuse imaginations(Nussbaum, 2006). Higher education which cultivates humanity (Nussbaum, 1997) Magna Carta Universitatum (1988): the universities' task of spreading knowledge among the younger generations implies that, in today's world, they must also serve society as a whole […] and that universities must give future generations education and training that will teach them, and through them others, to respect the great harmonies of their natural environment and of life itself. Magna Carta Universitatum (1988): the universities' task of spreading knowledge among the younger generations implies that, in today's world, they must also serve society as a whole […] and that universities must give future generations education and training that will teach them, and through them others, to respect the great harmonies of their natural environment and of life itself.

11 Pragmatic and comparative not transcendental - reasoned agreements about remediating injustices Pragmatic and comparative not transcendental - reasoned agreements about remediating injustices Global in reach and responsiveness Global in reach and responsiveness Capability formation in the space of evaluating quality (real lives) Capability formation in the space of evaluating quality (real lives) Obligations to others Obligations to others

12 well-being well-being participation and empowerment [people act as agents individually and in groups] participation and empowerment [people act as agents individually and in groups] equity [social justice] and diversity [learning between different cultures and identities] equity [social justice] and diversity [learning between different cultures and identities] sustainability [global issues, durable development]. sustainability [global issues, durable development].

13 For example, what would well-being (a human development value) look like in relation to key university activities: For example, what would well-being (a human development value) look like in relation to key university activities: research research teaching teaching social engagement social engagement University governance University governance university environment university environment

14 mw-poverty-reduction.index.php mw-poverty-reduction.index.php How might university-located professional education contribute to transforming South African universities to make contributions to poverty reduction. How can universities educate public good professionals who will make the choice and have the knowledge and practical skills to function in the interests of people living in conditions of poverty? How might university-located professional education contribute to transforming South African universities to make contributions to poverty reduction. How can universities educate public good professionals who will make the choice and have the knowledge and practical skills to function in the interests of people living in conditions of poverty?

15 Prospective (predictive, descriptive) application of the capability approach (rather than an evaluation of whether capabilities have been expanded) to ask what changes to existing educational and social arrangements would expand professional capabilities and how durable, equitable and sustainable such expansions would be (Alkire, 2008,p.32). Prospective (predictive, descriptive) application of the capability approach (rather than an evaluation of whether capabilities have been expanded) to ask what changes to existing educational and social arrangements would expand professional capabilities and how durable, equitable and sustainable such expansions would be (Alkire, 2008,p.32). Which policies and actions would yield greater capabilities? Which policies and actions would yield greater capabilities? Prospective analysis recognizes that contexts of social norms, groups and social institutions are essential in developing policies which will advance capability formation. Prospective analysis recognizes that contexts of social norms, groups and social institutions are essential in developing policies which will advance capability formation.

16 From data, research, theorizing, RWGs From data, research, theorizing, RWGs Comprehensive capabilities taken into account: Comprehensive capabilities taken into account: 1. Life 2. Bodily health 3. Bodily integrity 4. Sense, imagination and thought 5. Emotions 6. Practical Reason 7. Affiliation (A and B) 8. Other species 9. Play 10. Control over ones environment (A and B) 11. Doing good to others 12. Living in a law abiding fashion 13. Understanding the law

17 The overarching theme was conceptualized as public good professionalism ; in South Africa we suggest this means pro-poor professionalism given that the majority live in conditions of poverty. The overarching theme was conceptualized as public good professionalism ; in South Africa we suggest this means pro-poor professionalism given that the majority live in conditions of poverty. We wanted to know from our data how public good professionals were being educated in universities, notwithstanding tensions, contradictions and constraints of change and transformation. We wanted to know from our data how public good professionals were being educated in universities, notwithstanding tensions, contradictions and constraints of change and transformation. We looked for a consistent educational philosophy, for example, the importance of human dignity but did not expect to find a homogenized transformation vision so much as a plurality of strategies, locations and underpinning themes. We looked for a consistent educational philosophy, for example, the importance of human dignity but did not expect to find a homogenized transformation vision so much as a plurality of strategies, locations and underpinning themes. Nonetheless we thought there ought to be an iterative 'thread which could be pulled through all the interviews for each professional site in order to tell a reasonably coherent story about educating professionals. Thus if we found public good professionalism in alumni and students we assumed it is happening in some way in professional education and that we should then be able to find evidence. Nonetheless we thought there ought to be an iterative 'thread which could be pulled through all the interviews for each professional site in order to tell a reasonably coherent story about educating professionals. Thus if we found public good professionalism in alumni and students we assumed it is happening in some way in professional education and that we should then be able to find evidence.

18 Stage 1: 90 Interviews with students, lecturers, university leaders, alumni, prof bodies, NGOs (August – October 2008) Stage 1: 90 Interviews with students, lecturers, university leaders, alumni, prof bodies, NGOs (August – October 2008) Stage 2: Coding of Social Work data around 9 theory-driven themes to generate four grounded professional capabilities Stage 2: Coding of Social Work data around 9 theory-driven themes to generate four grounded professional capabilities Stage 3 Coding and chunking of student, lecturer, alumni data using agreed categories of professional capabilities, educational arrangements, and social constraints; followed by prof bodies and NGOs, and University leaders (by mid March 2009) Stage 3 Coding and chunking of student, lecturer, alumni data using agreed categories of professional capabilities, educational arrangements, and social constraints; followed by prof bodies and NGOs, and University leaders (by mid March 2009) Stage 4 Summary narrative produced (March 2009) Stage 4 Summary narrative produced (March 2009) Stage 5 responses from research working groups (March 2009) Stage 5 responses from research working groups (March 2009) Stage 6 construction of professional capabilities tables across all 5 case studies, drawing on summary narratives (March 2009) Stage 6 construction of professional capabilities tables across all 5 case studies, drawing on summary narratives (March 2009) Stage 7 further adjustment of these 4 tables after feedback from RWGs (July-September 2009) Stage 7 further adjustment of these 4 tables after feedback from RWGs (July-September 2009) Stage 8 drafting of expanded case study for each professional site ( ,000 words), including discussion and feedback from each participating department (by November 2009) Stage 8 drafting of expanded case study for each professional site ( ,000 words), including discussion and feedback from each participating department (by November 2009)

19 Expanding the comprehensive capabilities of people living in poverty Expanding the comprehensive capabilities of people living in poverty Acting for social transformation and reduce injustice Acting for social transformation and reduce injustice Making sound professional judgments Making sound professional judgments Recognizing the full dignity of every human being. Recognizing the full dignity of every human being.

20 Informed Vision and Imagination Informed Vision and Imagination Affiliation (solidarity) Affiliation (solidarity) Resilience Resilience Social and collective struggle Social and collective struggle Emotions Emotions Integrity Integrity Knowledge and practical skills Knowledge and practical skills

21 1. vision 2. affiliation 3. resilience 4. struggle 5. emotions 6. Knowledge & skills 7. integrity 8. confidence PROFESSIONAL CAPS. EDUCATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS departmental cultures building just future professional ways of being culture engagement legacy of apartheid (racial oppression) INSTITUTIONAL CONDITIONS SOCIAL ARRANGEMENTS curr. & pedagogy advancing criticism, delib, resp systemic & material based cultural Capability & Functioning resources & Constraints for prof. education in South Africa univs Biographies of dis/advantage (autonomous agency & capability to realize) META FUNCTIONINGS expand capabi- lities of the poor act for social transformation build just future make wise prof. judgements recognise every persons full human dignity

22 Praxis pedagogies: transformative, critical, attentive both to knowledge and to responsible action in society, with these features : Praxis pedagogies: transformative, critical, attentive both to knowledge and to responsible action in society, with these features : i. Contextual knowledge and understanding ii. Developing identity, commitment and community iii. Transformative learning to mirror the emphasis on transformation in South African society.

23 If certain kinds of [public good] professionals are being educated by universities, this is a significant contribution to poverty reduction in South Africa, given that all professionals - engineers, lawyers, doctors, nurses, teachers, economists, business leaders, social workers, and so on - are now educated in universities. If certain kinds of [public good] professionals are being educated by universities, this is a significant contribution to poverty reduction in South Africa, given that all professionals - engineers, lawyers, doctors, nurses, teachers, economists, business leaders, social workers, and so on - are now educated in universities. Need for public reasoning about an evaluative /quality framework and the reach and responsiveness of HD and the CA. Need for public reasoning about an evaluative /quality framework and the reach and responsiveness of HD and the CA.

24 If we were to follow Boni and Gaspers approach we might list the professional capabilities as human development values or dimensions and ask what implications follow for teaching, research, social responsibility, university governance and university environment. If we were to follow Boni and Gaspers approach we might list the professional capabilities as human development values or dimensions and ask what implications follow for teaching, research, social responsibility, university governance and university environment. Or HD values might be the vertical axis and capabilities the horizontal axis. Or HD values might be the vertical axis and capabilities the horizontal axis. Or the professional capabilities might form the basis of process of public reasoning to agree a smaller set of core values and dimensions for a whole university which might be the same, or different, but which were still grounded in human development ethics and values, and would constitute the basis of internal deliberative quality evaluation processes. Or the professional capabilities might form the basis of process of public reasoning to agree a smaller set of core values and dimensions for a whole university which might be the same, or different, but which were still grounded in human development ethics and values, and would constitute the basis of internal deliberative quality evaluation processes.


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