Presentation on theme: "Sandra Johnson, Assessment Europe SQA October 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Sandra Johnson, Assessment Europe SQA October 2013
Any feature in examinations that allows different candidates for the same qualification to achieve that qualification through different assessment routes.
Forms of optionality Appears in the context of the question rather than the content Allows candidates to choose between items of mandatory content Reflects optional content in courses Embedded within questions Parallel papers/units Class-based tasks
Choose one of the following four writing scenarios on the contexts of employability, culture, culture and learning that you have studied in the course. Write approximately words. OPTION 1 You have just come back from a summer job in Spain and you have been asked to write a report for your schools/colleges Spanish webpage. You must include the following information: OPTION 2 You recently watched a Spanish film at an International film festival. You have been asked to write a review of the film, in Spanish, for a Spanish website. You must include the following information: Where you worked and how you got there everyday What you had to do every day as part of your duties and why you enjoyed them or did not enjoy them How you got on with your boss and the other employees How you think this experience will help you in the future An outline of the plot of the film and a description of one of the major scenes A description of the main characters and why you liked or disliked them What the themes were and which one you considered to be the most important Why you would recommend the film to other young people
Attempt BOTH questions You should use different examples of media content in your response to each question. 1.Media Content in Context How audiences respond to genre texts can depend on the mixture of expected and expected elements within them. Analyse how this statement could apply to media content you have studied. In your response you must cover: a)the ways in which genre markers are evident in narrative structures, codes and/or conventions (10 marks) b)the ways in which genre markers are evident in at least one other key aspect from categories, language or representation (10 marks) c)the ways in which different audiences might respond to expected and unexpected elements of the genre (10 marks) You can use the bullet points to structure your response, or integrate your responses to the bullet points in any appropriate way. 2.The Role of Media The media is consistently criticised as being intrusive, out of control or problematic in some other way. Often, the response from the media is that it is simply meeting needs. Discuss this statement with reference to media content you have studied.
Answer either Question B1 or Question B2 and Question B3 B1 Compare the importance of the Executive in making policy, with reference to two political systems you have studied. In your answer you should compare three aspects of policy making. 12 marks B2 Compare the importance of the Judiciary, with reference to two political systems you have studied. In your answer you should identify three aspects of the Judiciary. 12 marks
8.Answer either A OR B. A Describe how animals survive adverse conditions. OR B Describe recombinant DNA technology.4 Labelled diagrams may be used where appropriate
Total marks 40 ECTION 1 Scottish Text 20 marks Read an extract from a Scottish text you have previously studied and attempt the questions. Choose ONE text from either Part A Drama Pages 2–7 or Part B Prose Pages 8–17 or Part C Poetry Pages 18–25 Attempt All the questions for your chosen text. SECTION 2 Critical Essay 20 marks Write ONE critical essay on a previously studied text from the following genres Drama, Prose, Poetry, Film and Television Drama, or language. Your answer must be on a different genre from that chosen in Section 1.
Motivations for introducing optionality (intended benefits) To allow flexibility in curriculum coverage To maximise learning motivation and test motivation for candidates To provide opportunities for candidates to build on their strengths and weaknesses
Historic debates about the value of optionality – among them: Should optional questions be used in examinations? Stalnaker, J.W., School and Society, 1935 Optional questions in tests and examinations Devadson, M.D., Teacher Education, 1963 Test performance and the use of optional questions Ducette, J. & Wolk, S., Journal of Experimental Education, 1972 Question choice in examinations: an experiment in geography and science Taylor, E.G. & Nuttall, D.I., Educational Research, 1974
Issues: validity, reliability, fairness Validity (comparability of demand ) Wisdom of candidates choices* Reliability Grading (all in pool) Fairness to candidates * Willmott, A.S. & Hall, C.G. (1975) O level examined: the effect of question choice. Schools Council. Candidates do not always make the wisest question choices
Johnson, S., Johnson, R., Miller, L., Boyle, A. (2013) Reliability of Vocational Assessment: An evaluation of level 3 electro-technical qualifications. Coventry: Ofqual.
Section A (20 3-mark questions) Section B (6 15-mark questions) phi95% CI*Phi95% CI* Single marking0.71± ± 18.0 Double marking0.73± ± 17.1 * These are given as marks around candidates section total scores
Example: GCE History One of several alternative Unit 1 papers Presented three extended response questions candidates were required to answer two questions so in practice there were three different pathways through the paper each question was worth 60 marks for a 120-mark paper total
Variance component estimates and % contributions Option 1 (q1q2) Option 2 (q1q3) Option 3 (q2q3) Candidates Questions 2 <1 5 Confounded residual Generalizability coefficients Relative measurement Absolute measurement Standard errors of measurement SEM relative SEM absolute Margins of error ME relative ME absolute
Example: GCE AS Geography a 2-section paper two three-part open-ended questions in each section Allows candidates to choose between items of mandatory content candidates were required to answer one question from each section so in practice there were four different pathways through the one paper each question worth 35 marks for a 70-mark paper total
Pathways through the paper q1+q3q1+q4q2+q3q2+q * Tariff section weights in analyses were and 0.429, respectively, for the 10-mark and 15-mark part-questions.
Some questions to conclude: Should optionality be encouraged or eliminated? If continued in future paper design – what forms would be most appropriate? How should marker reliability studies be modified to accommodate differential option popularity? How soon can comprehensive reliability studies be introduced to look at optional pathways? Without question pretesting, what might be done to give all candidates fair grading outcomes in the context of optionality?