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Unit 1 – Changing Life in Scotland and Britain Context A: 1750s-1850s.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 – Changing Life in Scotland and Britain Context A: 1750s-1850s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 1 – Changing Life in Scotland and Britain Context A: 1750s-1850s

2 1. The increase in Scotlands population from the 1750s to the 1850s was quite greatly due to improvement in diet and food supply. Although factors such as improvements in medicine and medical care and movement of people into towns also lead to an increase in Scotlands population. The improvements in the diet and food supply lead to an increase in the birth rate. This was due to women having better diets and better food supply so therefore better fertility. This meant that women were more likely to get pregnant and have more children, so the birth rate increased. P MI (a6) P Intro Para P

3 The improvements in diet and food supply also lead to a fall in the death rate. As people were better fed they had more resistance against diseases so were less likely to fall ill and died. The population of Scotland also increased as there were improvements in medicine and medical care so the death rate fell. People became more aware of the connection between dirt and disease so hospitals were cleaner leading to a fall in the death rate. Medical care also improved as medical schools were established in Glasgow and Edinburgh so doctors were better trained. This lead to a fall in the death rate so population of Scotland increased. P MI (a8) P P MI (b7)P MI (b4) P Para

4 Another factor leading to the population increase was the movement of people into town. This meant people were more likely to find someone to marry and have children with, leading to an increase in the birth rate. The population of Scotland also increased due to a higher tax on gin in 1751 as this decreased the number of deaths from alcoholism. Overall the increase in Scotlands population from the 1750s to the 1850s was quite greatly due to improvements in diet and food supply but there were other factors such as better trained doctors and movement of people in towns. P MI (a16)P MI (a20) P 1 P C = 2/2+Cont (6)= 6/6= 8/8 Conc

5 2. Source A is quite useful for investigating how improvements in technology in the textile industry affected the Scottish people. The purpose of the source is record for a parish and the conditions of the mill there which makes it useful for investigating this issue. The author makes the source useful as he would be an eyewitness to these effects of the textile industry on Scottish people. The date makes the source useful as it is written in 1846 so is a primary source from the time of technology improvements in Scotland. The detail in the source is useful as it shows how textile workers were well off but had to work long hours and suffered health problems as a result of the improvements in technology in the textile industry. P Purp Auth Contemp Cont

6 The source is however limited as it only contains information about one mill in Scotland and people in other parts of Scotland were effected differently by the technology improvements. Overall the source is quite useful for investigating this issue but had some limitations. S.W. Lim (Loc) P P+Purp+Auth+Contemp+Cont+Lim (Loc) = 4/4

7 3. Evidence to support the view that improvements in technology in the textile industry brought benefits to the Scottish people Source A The cotton mill employees can afford to live and dress well. Source B Their skills were in great demand. Up to the 1820s they earned high wages. Source C Higher wages at this mill attracted workers. MI (2) MI (4/5) MI (7)

8 Evidence to support the view that improvements in technology in the textile industry did not bring benefits to the Scottish people Source A The high temperature in the mills weaken the body and damage the workers health. People has to work very long hours and 6 days a week Source B More and more weavers were reduced to living in terrible poverty Source C The noise of the machinery led to many workers becoming deaf. MI (2) MI (1) MI (5) MI (8) 7 p of e = 6 out of 6

9 4. I agree to a limited extent that improvements in technology in the textile industry brought benefits to the Scottish people. These improvements did lead to some people earning higher wages therefore being better off, the cotton mill employees can afford to dress well. Also the machines did make the work faster so more could be produced at a much faster speed, the first new machines speeded up the spinning of the thread. However the machines were dangerous and lead to accidents. This included hair and limbs being caught in moving machines. Also the factories were very hot and this lead to health problems, the high temperature in the mills weaken the body and damage the workers health. P PE (2/5/7) S.W. R (16) DP R (16) PE (2) B

10 The factories often had poor ventilation which lead to lung diseases and possibly death. The factory also lead to people becoming deaf or blind. Overall I agree to a limited extent that improvements in technology in the textile industry brought benefits to the Scottish people as they damaged peoples health although they had some benefits like people were better off and earned more money. R (21) PE (8/9) P P+3PE+3R+B=5 out of 5

11 Unit II – International Cooperation and Conflict Context A: 1890s-1920s

12 1. On the 28 th June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the Austrian throne, was assassinated on a state visit to Sarajevo by a terrorist organisation called the Black Hand. Austria, Hungary blamed Serbia for this and sent them an ultimatum with a list of 10 demands. Serbia only accepted 8 of these demands so Austria-Hungary began to mobilise troops towards Serbia. Serbia had a treaty with Russia who began to mobilise their troops to help Serbia. Germany, who had a treaty with Austria Hungary then declared war on Russia and soon declared war on France also. Germany then invaded Belgium who had a treaty with Britain. Britain warned Germany to leave Belgium and when Germany failed to do so, declared war on her. P MI (1/2) P MI (3) MI (5) MI (6)PP P MI (7) MI (8) P

13 2.Gas was a terrible weapon used first by Germany during the War. At first it was released into the wind which would blow it over into the opposing trenches but this was unreliable because the wind could change. Then cannisters were developed which could hold gas and be thrown directly at the enemy. At first the effects of this terrible weapon were terrible killing thousands but gas masks were soon developed which enabled soldiers to breath clean air during a gas attack. MI (1) MI (6) MI (3) MI (10) MI (8)

14 3. The author of Source A has a very hostile attitude towards the Germans. He believes that the allied forces should take everything Germany has from them. He thinks that Germany are responsible for the war and wants revenge. He disagrees with those who want Germany to be treated with mercy and wants to punish them ruthlessly. HOL MI (1) HOL (1) MI (5) MI (4)

15 4. Sources A and B disagree on most points about the treatment of Germany. Source A says that I think that we should get everything out of Germany where as Source B says that the best solution was to let the Germans off lightly. Source A says I would strip Germany as she stripped Belgium, whereas Source B states that he urged everyone to forget compensation. Sources A and B both agree that France wanted revenge. Source A says I can understand why the French want revenge and Source b says The French bitterly hated the Germans and wanted revenge. () P 1 1 SC (1) SC (4) DC (4) 1xDC+2xSC 4 SC (2/3)

16 5. Source C describes the terms of the Treaty of Versailles quite fully. It includes that Germany was held responsible for the war and that she should pay. The source explains that Germany lost her colonies and that she had to pay 6.6 billion in compensation. It does not include however that Germany's army was limited to 100,000 men. Also two cities that Germany and France had fought over in the past, Alsace and Lorraine were handed back to France. It also leaves out that the Rhineland an area at the border between France and Germany became a demilitarized zone. P ( ) PE (1) PE (2) R(7) R(13) R(10) (P+2PE+3R)

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