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Applications of Nuclear Physics Applications of Nuclear Physics (Instrumentation) Dr Andy Boston ajboston@liv.ac.uk Frontiers of gamma-ray spectroscopy And its applications AGATA GRETA

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Example Projects Instrumentation: –Medical : SmartPET (Ge) –Environmental : PorGamRayS (CZT) –Explosives/Drugs : Distinguish (Ge/CsI) Rely upon –Nuclear Structure : AGATA (Ge) –COBRA (CZT) –ALPHA (Si) Nuclear Fuel Cycle Corus, BAe Systems, Centronic, BNFL, e2v, GE Healthcare

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Applications of Nuclear Physics SmartPET

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Applications of Nuclear Physics SmartPET detector depth response AC signalsDC signals AC signals superpulse pulse shapes for 137 Cs events versus depth

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Applications of Nuclear Physics h e Image Charge Response Image charge asymmetry varies as a function of lateral interaction position - Calibration of asymmetry response h e h e h e h e

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Reconstructed Images Simple PSA techniques applied event-by-event Filtered Back Projection – 22 Na source No PSA PSA Andy Mather 60mm FWHM = 9.5mmFWHM = 1.2mm

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Applications of Nuclear Physics 60mm Early Point source images Sum together these slices Total projection along rotation plane

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Cone beam reconstruction with 10 iterations. ~8mm image resolution x-y. 152 Eu point source imaging. 30 keV gate on 1408 keV. 30mm detector separation with 1.6mm position resolution. Single interactions in each detector. Imaging Progress : Compton Camera 6 cm source to crystal 3 cm crystal to crystal John Gillam

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Compton Imaging with HPGe 30mm & 50mm separation between scatterer & analyser. 1.6cm separation between points FWHM ~ 8mm

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Area array of segmented Germanium 1mm 2 pixels. Inter pixel gap down to 5 microns Pixels with an inter pixel gap of 35 microns 30 m Trench Depth Germanium Processing for X-ray and Detectors Bob Stevens, Adnan Malik, Gareth Derbyshire

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Characterisation of CZT Have characterised CZT pixellated detectors. 20x20x2mm CZT (2mm pixels) from eV products in Liverpool Tested NUCAM ASIC

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Initial tests of pixellated CZT EnergyFWHM2xUHWHM keV% % 60 keV 4.67.72.253.7 122 keV 7.25.92.63.9 662 keV 28.14.2162.4 1332 keV 40.33.014.61.0 137 Cs 241 Am Taken using Ortec 671 Spectroscopy amplifier, 3 s shaping time Pixel 5

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Surface scan of CZT Analogue electronics Gated on energy and multiplicity 1 events Scan performed in 1 mm steps, 300 s per position Position Matrix Counts Detector Resolution at 122 keV 5%

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Surface scan of CZT: pixels Y position of scanning table (mm) X position of scanning table (mm) Intensity Counts observed in 300 s

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Multiplicity 2 events Energy (Channels) 122 keV Coincidence matrix X position in mm Y position in mm Counts Position matrix

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Applications of Nuclear Physics In operation 7-8% of total nuclear reactor power is from beta decay of fission fragments When reactor stops this Reactor Decay Heat remains and requires cooling etc. This heating is due to a large number of isotopes. a) We need to calculate how much cooling is needed b) How much shielding is needed c) how quickly certain operations can be performed All of this has major effects on the costs of running a fleet of reactors. To calculate Reactor Decay Heat requires large libraries of cross- sections, fission yields and accurate decay data. However it turns out that many radioactive decay schemes are simply not complete because the instrumentation used is inadequate. Reactor decay Heat

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Solution-Total Absorption Spectrometer where ideally all gamma rays are detected and spectrum reflects population of levels. Picture shows GSI TAS and TAS at CERN-ISOLDE(NaI is 38.0 x38.0 cms.) Efficiencies are shown on right. Scan analysis update

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Applications of Nuclear Physics Applications of Nuclear Physics (Instrumentation) Dr Andy Boston ajboston@liv.ac.uk Frontiers of gamma-ray spectroscopy And its applications AGATA GRETA

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