Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Graham Scott.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Graham Scott."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Graham Scott

2 How do children work? Early Theories 18 th Century Empiricists: Adults in training. Nativists: Adults in miniature.

3 Jean Piaget ( ) First to suggest that children see the world differently to adults. First to develop methods to investigate this. First to offer a systematic theoretical account of the process of mental growth.

4 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth – 2 years

5 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth – 2 years Stage 2: preoperational period 2 – 7 years

6 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth – 2 years Stage 2: preoperational period 2 – 7 years Stage 3: concrete operations 7 – 11 years Stage 4: formal operations 11 years +

7 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth – 2 years Stage 2: preoperational period 2 – 7 years Stage 3: concrete operations 7 – 11 years Stage 4: formal operations 11 years +

8 Object Permanence For infants, Out of sight, out of existence.

9 Object Permanence

10 For infants, Out of sight, out of existence. 8 months – infants start to reach for a hidden toy.

11 Object Permanence For infants, Out of sight, out of existence. 8 months – infants start to reach for a hidden toy. A-not-B effect.

12 The A-not-B effect

13 Object Permanence For infants, Out of sight, out of existence. 8 months – infants start to reach for a hidden toy. A-not-B effect The child still doesnt understand that the objects existence is entirely independent of his own actions.

14 Object Permanence For infants, Out of sight, out of existence. 8 months – infants start to reach for a hidden toy. A-not-B effect The child still doesnt understand that the objects existence is entirely independent of his own actions. Understanding that objects exist on their own is a major accomplishment of the sensory-motor period.

15 Sensory-motor Schemas Infants start life with only a few reactions, and think of the world in terms of these reactions.

16 Sensory-motor Schemas Infants start life with only a few reactions, and think of the world in terms of these reactions. Piaget claimed 2 processes were responsible for all cognitive development: Assimilation: children use the mental schemas they have to interpret the environment. Accommodation: schemas change as the child gains experience of the world.

17 Beginnings of Representational Thought months: children begin to conceive of objects which arent immediately present.

18 Beginnings of Representational Thought months: children begin to conceive of objects which arent immediately present. Goes hand-in-hand with object permanence.

19 Beginnings of Representational Thought months: children begin to conceive of objects which arent immediately present. Goes hand-in-hand with object permanence. Where is the evidence?

20 Beginnings of Representational Thought months: children begin to conceive of objects which arent immediately present. Goes hand-in-hand with object permanence. Where is the evidence? At 18 months: Annoyance if toy is not in expected hiding place.

21 Beginnings of Representational Thought months: children begin to conceive of objects which arent immediately present. Goes hand-in-hand with object permanence. Where is the evidence? At 18 months: Annoyance if toy is not in expected hiding place. Deferred imitation.

22 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth – 2 years Stage 2: preoperational period 2 – 7 years Stage 3: concrete operations 7 – 11 years Stage 4: formal operations 11 years +

23 Failure of Conservation Conservation of Quantity.

24 Failure of Conservation

25

26

27 Conservation of Quantity. Conservation of number.

28 Failure of Conservation

29 Conservation of Quantity. Conservation of number. Why the errors? Inability to interrelate the different dimensions of a situation.

30 Failure of Conservation Conservation of Quantity. Conservation of number. Why the errors? Inability to interrelate the different dimensions of a situation. Egocentrism.

31 Egocentrism

32 Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Stage 1: sensory-motor intelligence Birth – 2 years Stage 2: preoperational period 2 – 7 years Stage 3: concrete operations 7 – 11 years Stage 4: formal operations 11 years +

33 Concrete and Formal Operations Children can now transform their own mental representations to solve all the problems we have discussed.

34 Concrete and Formal Operations Children can now transform their own mental representations to solve all the problems we have discussed. But they still lack in abstract thinking.

35 Concrete and Formal Operations Children can now transform their own mental representations to solve all the problems we have discussed. But they still lack in abstract thinking. E.g., they know: = odd, = odd, and = odd, but fail to see the pattern.

36 Concrete and Formal Operations Children can now transform their own mental representations to solve all the problems we have discussed. But they still lack in abstract thinking. E.g., they know: = odd, = odd, and = odd, but fail to see the pattern. The pendulum problem.

37 What Piaget Accomplished Influenced the way people think about intellectual growth. Discovered phenomena. Provided insight. But his findings have been challenged...

38 Space and Objects in Infancy The visual cliff

39 The Visual Cliff

40 Space and Objects in Infancy The visual cliff The effect of occlusion

41 The Effect of Occlusion

42 Space and Objects in Infancy The visual cliff The effect of occlusion Habituation procedure

43 The Effect of Occlusion

44 Space and Objects in Infancy The visual cliff The effect of occlusion Habituation procedure Knowing about objects

45 Knowing About Objects

46 Space and Objects in Infancy The visual cliff The effect of occlusion Habituation procedure Knowing about objects Object permanence and the search process

47 Space and Objects in Infancy

48 Number in Infancy Piaget argued that children had no concept of number, but...

49 Number in Infancy Piaget argued that children had no concept of number, but... Habituation showed they grasped the concept of threeness.

50 Number in Infancy

51

52 Piaget argued that children had no concept of number, but... Habituation showed they grasped the concept of threeness. They seem to understand numerical equivalency.

53 Number in Infancy Piaget argued that children had no concept of number, but... Habituation showed they grasped the concept of threeness. They seem to understand numerical equivalency. They can even add and subtract!

54 The Existence of Other Minds Innate predisposition to faces.

55 The Existence of Other Minds

56 Innate predisposition to faces. Follow their mothers gaze.

57 The Existence of Other Minds Innate predisposition to faces. Follow their mothers gaze. Try to comfort others.

58 End of Part 1

59 Language Development and Acquisition Theoretical points of view Nature - language is innate; biological predisposition Nurture - lang. learned via environmental stimulation

60 Language Development and Acquisition Points of debate: imitation & correction? whole-object constraint over-regularisation (goed, tooths) motherese pidgin creole Conclusion: infants are immediately sensitive to language, but need to interact to learn

61 Stages of Language Production (0-12m) Age (mo)/StageBehaviour 0-3 vegetative soundsburp, cough, suck, swallow, cry.

62 Stages of Language Production (0-12m) Age (mo)/StageBehaviour 0-3 vegetative soundsburp, cough, suck, swallow, cry. 3-5 cooing and laughing sounds with intonation.

63 Stages of Language Production (0-12m) Age (mo)/StageBehaviour 0-3 vegetative soundsburp, cough, suck, swallow, cry. 3-5 cooing and laughing sounds with intonation babblingconsonant-vowel sounds.

64 Stages of Language Production (0-12m) Age (mo)/StageBehaviour 0-3 vegetative soundsburp, cough, suck, swallow, cry. 3-5 cooing and laughing sounds with intonation babblingconsonant-vowel sounds. 6-9 reduplicatedba-ba-ba-ba variegatedbi-du-ba.

65 Stages of Language Perception (0-12m) AgeDiscrimination 45 minsround lips vs. tongue protrusion imitation.

66 Stages of Language Perception (0-12m)

67 AgeDiscrimination 45 minsround lips vs. tongue protrusion imitation. 1 weekmothers voice vs. others voice. own language vs. foreign language. sucking

68 Stages of Language Perception (0-12m) AgeDiscrimination 45 minsround lips vs. tongue protrusion imitation. 1 weekmothers voice vs. others voice. own language vs. foreign language. sucking 2-4 moall possible phoneme distinctions. 6-8 mocategorise phonemes across different voices. lose non-native distinctions.

69 Stages of Language Production (1-5yrs) Age (yr)/StageBehaviour 1holophrasemore, dada, gone, (1 word stage)bye-bye.

70 Stages of Language Production (1-5yrs) Age (yr)/StageBehaviour 1holophrasemore, dada, gone, (1 word stage)bye-bye. 1.5telegraphicAllgone milk, She cold, (2 word stage)Shut door.

71 Stages of Language Production (1-5yrs) Age (yr)/StageBehaviour 1holophrasemore, dada, gone, (1 word stage)bye-bye. 1.5telegraphicAllgone milk, She cold, (2 word stage)Shut door. 2-4Short Sentence StageShort sentences, negation and sentence formation

72 Stages of Language Production (1-5yrs) Dada play? Play Dada? Can Dada play? No/Not Dada play Dada no/not play Dada dont play

73 Stages of Language Production (1-5yrs) Age (yr)/StageBehaviour 1holophrasemore, dada, gone, (1 word stage)bye-bye. 1.5telegraphicAllgone milk, She cold, (2 word stage)Shut door. 2-4Short Sentence StageShort sentences, negation and sentence formation 4-5more complex forms, over-regularisations went goed went

74 Critical Periods The notion of a critical period

75 Critical Periods Nurture help needed, but must come within the critical period. Learning is innately guided, but must come from responses to particular stimuli. This can be manipulated: Attachment in ducks. Regional Dialects in bird song.

76 Critical Periods

77 A Critical Period for Language Learning? The case of Isabelle Hidden in attic by deranged mother. No exposure to language. Found at age 6. Normal language by age 7.

78 A Critical Period for Language Learning? The case of Genie Isolated from age 20 months, no exposure to language. Found age 13. Language stayed in pidgin form.

79 A Critical Period for Language Learning? The case of Chelsea Born deaf and mistakenly diagnosed as retarded. Never exposed to spoken or sign language. Correctly diagnosed at age 31, hearing restored. Intensive language training. No progress beyond rudimentary 2 word sentences.

80 Is there a Critical Period for Language Acquisition? These cases suggest a critical period. Exposure before ~7 results in acquisition. Exposure after ~13 does not. Problems with evidence?

81 The End


Download ppt "Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Graham Scott."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google