# Multivariate Description. What Technique? Response variable(s)... Predictors(s) No Predictors(s) Yes... is one distribution summary regression models...

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Multivariate Description

What Technique? Response variable(s)... Predictors(s) No Predictors(s) Yes... is one distribution summary regression models... are many indirect gradient analysis (PCA, CA, DCA, MDS) cluster analysis direct gradient analysis constrained cluster analysis discriminant analysis (CVA)

Raw Data

Linear Regression

Two Regressions

Principal Components

Gulls Variables

Scree Plot

Output > gulls.pca2\$loadings Loadings: Comp.1 Comp.2 Comp.3 Comp.4 Weight -0.505 -0.343 0.285 0.739 Wing -0.490 0.852 -0.143 0.116 Bill -0.500 -0.381 -0.742 -0.232 H.and.B -0.505 -0.107 0.589 -0.622 > summary(gulls.pca2) Importance of components: Comp.1 Comp.2 Comp.3 Standard deviation 1.8133342 0.52544623 0.47501980 Proportion of Variance 0.8243224 0.06921464 0.05656722 Cumulative Proportion 0.8243224 0.89353703 0.95010425

Bi-Plot

Male or Female?

Linear Discriminant > gulls.lda <- lda(Sex ~ Wing + Weight + H.and.B + Bill, gulls) lda(Sex ~ Wing + Weight + H.and.B + Bill, data = gulls) Prior probabilities of groups: 0 1 0.5801105 0.4198895 Group means: Wing Weight H.and.B Bill 0 410.0381 871.7619 115.1143 17.62524 1 430.6118 1054.3092 125.9474 19.50789 Coefficients of linear discriminants: LD1 Wing 0.045512619 Weight 0.001887236 H.and.B 0.138127194 Bill 0.444847743

Discriminating

Relationship between PCA and LDA

CVA

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