Presentation on theme: "UK public health aspects: Impact of the pneumococcal vaccination programme Jim McMenamin, Eisin Shakir, Arlene Reynolds Health Protection Scotland."— Presentation transcript:
UK public health aspects: Impact of the pneumococcal vaccination programme Jim McMenamin, Eisin Shakir, Arlene Reynolds Health Protection Scotland
What am I going to cover? Background re pneumonia Background re clinical spectrum of pneumococcal disease & why burden so difficult to quantify Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) Impact of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination Programme on IPD
Pneumonia may be deadly, especially for children More than 1.5 million children die from pneumonia each year. 1 Pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. 2 One child dies from pneumonia every 20 seconds. Thats 4,300 young lives lost every day. 3 Most children who die of pneumonia live in developing countries An estimated 98% of children who die of pneumonia live in developing countries. 4 For every 1 child that dies of pneumonia in a developed country, more than 2000 children die of pneumonia in developing countries. 4 1. Black R, Cousens S, Johnson H, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systemic analysis. Lancet. 2010; 375:1969-87. 2. World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2009. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS09_Full.pdf. Accessed September 6, 2009. 3. Black R, Cousens S, Johnson H, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systemic analysis. Lancet. 2010; 375:1969-87. 4. World Health Organization. World health statistics 2006. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat2006.pdf. Accessed September 6, 2009.
What is pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs It causes cough and fever and can make breathing difficult. Severe pneumonia can be deadly. Who is most at risk? In developing countries, children under 5 and especially under 2 years of age are at risk, especially in the poorest communities. 1 In developed countries the elderly are often at highest risk. Tobacco smoke and other indoor air pollution can also increase chances of being more susceptible to pneumonia. 2,3 Some children and adults are at greater risk because they have other illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS. 4,5 People with HIV stand a much greater chance of dying from pneumonia than those who do not have HIV. 6 Children who are poorly nourished can also have weakened immune systems, putting them at higher risk of contracting pneumonia. 7 1 UNICEF/WHO. Pneumonia: the Forgotten Killer of Children. Geneva: 2006. 2 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2006. 3 Smith KR, Sarnet JM, Romieu I, Bruce N. Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute lower respiratory infections in children. Thorax. 2000; 55:518-32. 4 SA Madhi, L Kuwanda, C Cutland and KP Klugman. The impact of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the public health burden of pneumonia in HIV-infected and –uninfected children. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 40:1511-1518. 5 Feldman C. Pneumonia associated with HIV infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005; 18(2):165-70. 6 SA Madhi, K Petersen, A Madhi, A Wasas and KP Klugman. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus type I on the disease spectrum of Streptococcus pneumoniae in South African children. Pedatr Infect Dis J. 2000; 19:1131-1147. 7 Fishman SM, Caulfield LE, de Onix M, Blossner M, Hyder AA, Mullany L, et al,. Childhood and maternal underweight. In: Ezzati M, et al WHO; 2004.
What causes pneumonia? Many organisms can cause pneumonia. Globally, bacteria such as Hib and pneumococcus are estimated to cause more than 50% of pneumonia deaths in children under 5 years of age. 8 Viruses and fungi can also cause pneumonia infections. 9 How is pneumonia diagnosed? In resource-poor settings, pneumonia can be diagnosed by the symptoms it causes, including cough, fever and difficulty or fast breathing. 10 Chest X-rays and laboratory tests can also diagnose pneumonia, but these tools are often unavailable in developing countries, especially in remote rural communities, making it more difficult to diagnose and treat pneumonia. How is pneumonia prevented and treated? Some pneumonia can often be prevented with vaccines against Hib and pneumococcus. 11 Measles and pertussis (whooping cough) infections can result in pneumonia complications, so vaccinating against these childhood diseases can prevent some pneumonia cases. 12 Inexpensive antibiotics can effectively treat pneumonia at the community level. 13 8 In settings where these vaccines are not used. OBrien K, Wolfoson L, Watt J, et al,. Burden of Disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 5 years: global estimates. Lancet. 2009; 374:893-902. 9 Mandell Lionel A, Wunderink Richard. Pneumonia. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J. Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine (17th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed September 7, 2009. 10 World Health Organization and UNICEF. Integrated Managemenet of Childhood Illness Handbook. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005. 11 Mahdi SA, Levine OS, Hajjeh R, Mansoor OD, Cherian T. Vaccines to prevent pneumonia and improve child survival. Bull World Health Organ. 2008; 86:365-72. 12 Mahdi SA, Levine OS, Hajjeh R, Mansoor OD, Cherian T. Vaccines to prevent pneumonia and improve child survival. Bull World Health Organ. 2008; 86:365-72. 13 Sazawal S, Black RE, Pneumonia Case Management Trials Group. Effect of pneumonia case management on mortality in neonates, infants, and pre-school children: a meta-analysis of community based trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003; 3:547-56.
Clinical Spectrum & Burden of Pneumococcal Disease
Source WHO Health Bulletin 2008; CI, confidence interval; DBRCT, double-blind randomized controlled trial; HibCV, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine; PCV, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; USA, United States of America; VAR, vaccine attributable reduction per 1000 child years of observation; VE, vaccine efficacy based against radiologically confirmed pneumonia by use of per-protocol analysis when available.a All the studies evaluating PCV, as well as the HibCV studies in Indonesia and Bangladesh, used the WHO recommendations for interpreting and reporting on chest radiographs.23b The study from Colombia used an algorithm score which included radiologically confirmed pneumonia as one of the criteria. Summary of pneumonia vaccine effectiveness with either conjugate Hib or PCV
Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) Identification of S. pneumoniae in a normally sterile site by culture; Or, identification of S. pneumoniae DNA in CSF or pleural fluid by dual target PCR; (Or, reference laboratory identification of S. pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide and serotype-specific antigen in CSF or pleural fluid.)
Methods Link enhanced surveillance (SPIDER) data to death (GRO) and hospitalisation (SMR01 based on specified pneumococcal ICD9 & ICD10 codes) data –Death, prior medical conditions and clinical manifestations –DoB, sex, surname, forename, CHI number Retrospective linkage 2002 to 2006 Complete dataset pre PCV-7and post PPV-23 –microbiology, clinical presentation, comorbidity, mortality Highly specialised and labour intensive exercise
Background Previous data linkage study IPD in Scotland, 1999-2001: Use of record linkage to explore associations between patients and disease in relation to future vaccination policy Kyaw et al, CID 2003:37
What did 1999-2001 linkage tell us? 11.0 cases per 100,000 1999-2001 1582 (92.2%) cases linked <5yrs meningitis more likely 5+yrs pneumonia and septicaemia more likely Incidence high in those with underlying medical conditions
Results 2008 3515 IPD cases sent to ISD 122 duplicates 3393 IPD cases 2984 (88%) linked to GRO 409 unable to link
Incidence Mean incidence 13.4 per 100,000 Highest in 65s (34.8)
Impact of PCV IPD = Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood, CSF or other sterile site (e.g. joint fluid) Notifiable disease (but only since new PH act) SPIDER surveillance scheme since 1999 Two vaccines available –PPV-23 in 65+ years (& At risk groups) –PCV-7 (2006) then PCV-13 (2010) in childhood immunisation schedule data Enhanced surveillance since 2006 Impact of vaccination?
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) Prevenar The 7 valent conjugate vaccine (Prevenar 7) contains 7 serotypes: –14, 18C, 19F, 23F, 4, 6B, 9V The 13 valent conjugate vaccine (Prevenar 13 ) contains an additional 6 serotypes: –1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, 19A Over 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae exist
Conclusion re PCV vaccination Impact Dramatic effect of PCV7 in reducing IPD –Under 5s + indirectly leading to reduction in other age groups (change in carriage…) –Overall reduction in total IPD cases –Some evidence of serogroup replacement –Too early to say what impact will be of PCV13 but likely further reduction in under 5s (?will there also be an indirect effect on other age groups)
What did I cover? Background re pneumonia Background re clinical spectrum of pneumococcal disease & why burden so difficult to quantify Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) Impact of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination Programme on IPD